Project 1092: J. Chen, G. S. Bever, H. Yi, M. A. Norell. 2016. A burrowing frog from the late Paleocene of Mongolia uncovers a deep history of spadefoot toads (Pelobatoidea) in East Asia. Scientific Reports. 6 (19209):1-7.
Specimen: † Prospea holoserisca (IGM:2/001)

Abstract

Fossils are indispensible in understanding the evolutionary origins of the modern fauna. Crown-group spadefoot toads (Anura: Pelobatoidea) are the best-known fossorial frog clade to inhabit arid environments, with species utilizing a characteristic bony spade on their foot for burrowing. Endemic to the Northern Hemisphere, they are distributed across the Holarctic except East Asia. Here we report a rare fossil of a crown-group spadefoot toad from the late Paleocene of Mongolia. The phylogenetic analysis using both morphological and molecular information recovered this Asian fossil inside the modern North American pelobatoid clade Scaphiopodidae. The presence of a spade and the phylogenetic position of the new fossil frog strongly support its burrowing behavior. The late Paleocene age and other information suggestive of a mild climate cast doubt on the conventional assertion that burrowing evolved as an adaptation to aridity in spadefoot toads. Temporally and geographically, the new fossil provides the earliest record of Scaphiopodidae worldwide, and the only member of the group in Asia. Quantitative biogeographic analysis suggests that Scaphiopodidae, despite originating in North America, dispersed into East Asia via Beringia in the Early Cenozoic. The absence of spadefoot toads in East Asia today is a result of extinction.

This research is funded by the Division of Paleontology at the American Museum of Natural History and NSF EAR 0959384



Read the article »

Article DOI: 10.1038/srep19209

Project DOI: 10.7934/P1092, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P1092
This project containsMatrices
  • 4 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 1 Document
  • 49 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 97 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 9 MB

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 3184
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 97
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 240
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:97/0
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MorphoBank Project 1092


    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    Jianye Chen
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 06/13/16
    290097000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    Gabe Bever
    Full membership
    Last logged in Never
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    Suzann Goldberg
    Full membership
    Last logged in 06/13/16
    20140003184
    (3184, 0, 0)
    000
    Mark Norell
    Full membership
    Last logged in Never
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    Hong-yu Yi
    Full membership
    Last logged in 12/08/15
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M23961' (49 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
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    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
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    [1] † Triadobatrachus massinoti
    Last Modified in 06/13/16
    38595900005
    [2] † Czatkobatrachus polonicus
    Last Modified in 06/13/16
    86111100005
    [3] † Prosalirus bitis
    Last Modified in 06/13/16
    71272600005
    [4] † Vieraella herbsti
    Last Modified in 06/13/16
    48504900005
    [5] † Notobatrachus degiustoi
    Last Modified in 06/13/16
    26737100005
    [6] Ascaphus truei
    Last Modified in 05/03/16
    10878700005
    [7] Leiopelma hochstetteri
    Last Modified in 05/03/16
    7909000005
    [8] Alytes obstetricans
    Last Modified in 05/03/16
    9888800005
    [9] Barbourula busuangensis
    Last Modified in 05/03/16
    8898900005
    [10] Bombina orientalis
    Last Modified in 05/03/16
    4949300005
    [11] Discoglossus pictus
    Last Modified in 05/03/16
    3959400005
    [12] † Eodiscoglossus santonjae
    Last Modified in 06/13/16
    44545300005
    [13] † Callobatrachus sanyanensis
    Last Modified in 06/13/16
    40575700005
    [14] † Mesophryne beipiaoensis
    Last Modified in 06/13/16
    45525200005
    [15] Pipa pipa
    Last Modified in 05/03/16
    7949000005
    [16] Xenopus
    Last Modified in 06/13/16
    6949100005
    [17] Rhinophrynus dorsalis
    Last Modified in 05/03/16
    11868600005
    [18] † Palaeobatrachus diluvianus
    Last Modified in 06/13/16
    35646200005
    [19] † Neusibatrachus wilferti
    Last Modified in 06/13/16
    55434200005
    [20] Meristogenys
    Last Modified in 06/13/16
    970000005
    [21] Hyla
    Last Modified in 06/13/16
    12878500005
    [22] Rana
    Last Modified in 06/13/16
    970000005
    [23] Limnodynastes peronii
    Last Modified in 05/03/16
    11898600005
    [24] † Yizhoubatrachus macilentus
    Last Modified in 06/13/16
    53444400005
    [25] Pelodytes caucasicus
    Last Modified in 05/03/16
    9888800005
    [26] Pelodytes punctatus
    Last Modified in 05/03/16
    10878700005
    [27] Pelodytes ibericus
    Last Modified in 05/03/16
    10878700005
    [28] Megophrys nasuta
    Last Modified in 05/03/16
    18807900005
    [29] Xenophrys
    Last Modified in 06/13/16
    970000005
    [30] Leptobrachium
    Last Modified in 06/13/16
    970000005
    [31] Leptolalax
    Last Modified in 06/13/16
    970000005
    [32] Brachytarsophrys feae
    Last Modified in 05/03/16
    970000005
    [33] † Elkobatrachus brocki
    Last Modified in 06/13/16
    43545400005
    [34] † Prospea holoserisca
    Last Modified in 05/03/16
    33666400005
    [35] Spea multiplicata
    Last Modified in 05/03/16
    5939200005
    [36] Spea hammondii
    Last Modified in 05/03/16
    16818100005
    [37] Spea intermontana
    Last Modified in 05/03/16
    5929200005
    [38] Spea bombifrons
    Last Modified in 05/03/16
    4939300005
    [39] Scaphiopus hurterii
    Last Modified in 05/03/16
    12858500005
    [40] Scaphiopus holbrookii
    Last Modified in 05/03/16
    8898900005
    [41] Scaphiopus couchii
    Last Modified in 05/03/16
    9888800005
    [42] † Macropelobates osborni
    Last Modified in 06/13/16
    44535300005
    [43] Eopelobates anthracinus
    Last Modified in 05/03/16
    36616100005
    [44] † Pelobates decheni
    Last Modified in 06/13/16
    54434300005
    [45] Pelobates varaldii
    Last Modified in 05/03/16
    13848400005
    [46] Pelobates cultripes
    Last Modified in 05/03/16
    5949200005
    [47] Pelobates fuscus
    Last Modified in 05/03/16
    4959300005
    [48] Pelobates syriacus
    Last Modified in 05/03/16
    12858500005
    [49] † Gobiates spinari
    Last Modified in 06/13/16
    38595900005


    Project views

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    Total project views13861
    Project overview1561
    Media views3098Media search (1985 views); M411471 (269 views); M411472 (257 views); M411473 (310 views); M411474 (277 views);
    Taxon list5554
    Matrix views1083Matrix landing page (977 views); Chen's Published Frog Matrix (106 views);
    Specimen list884
    Bibliography855
    Documents list826




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project115
    Matrix downloads6Chen's Published Frog Matrix (6 downloads);
    Document downloads3 (3 downloads);
    Project downloads106