Project 3380: O. Lambert, G. Bianucci, R. Salas-Gismondi, C. Di Celma, E. Steurbaut, M. Urbina, C. de Muizon. 2019. An Amphibious Whale from the Middle Eocene of Peru Reveals Early South Pacific Dispersal of Quadrupedal Cetaceans. Current Biology. 29:1-8.
Specimen: † Peregocetus pacificus (MUSM:3580)
View: lateral skeleton

Abstract

Cetaceans originated in south Asia more than 50 million years ago (Ma), from a small quadrupedal artiodactyl ancestor [1-3]. Amphibious whales gradually dispersed westward along North Africa and arrived in North America before 41.2 Ma [4]. However, fossil evidence on when, through which pathway, and under which locomotion abilities these early whales reached the New World is fragmentary and contentious [5-7]. Peregocetus pacificus gen. et sp. nov. is a new protocetid cetacean discovered in middle Eocene (42.6 Ma) marine deposits of coastal Peru, which constitutes the first indisputable quadrupedal whale record from the Pacific Ocean and the Southern Hemisphere. Preserving the mandibles and most of the postcranial skeleton, this unique four-limbed whale bore caudal vertebrae with bifurcated and anteroposteriorly expanded transverse processes, like those of beavers and otters, suggesting a significant contribution of the tail during swimming. The fore- and hind limb proportions roughly similar to geologically older quadrupedal whales from India and Pakistan, the pelvis being firmly attached to the sacrum, an insertion fossa for the round ligament on the femur, and the retention of small hooves with a flat anteroventral tip at fingers and toes indicate that Peregocetus was still capable of standing and even walking on land. This new record from the southeastern Pacific demonstrates that early quadrupedal whales crossed the South Atlantic and nearly attained a circum-equatorial distribution with a combination of terrestrial and aquatic locomotion abilities less than 10 million years after their origin and probably before a northward dispersal towards higher North American latitudes.


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Article DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2019.02.050

Project DOI: 10.7934/P3380, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P3380
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 34 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 121 Characters


Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 2237
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 121
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 330
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:79/42
Currently Viewing:
MorphoBank Project 3380


    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    Olivier Lambert
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 04/10/19
    3411121002237
    (2221, 0, 16)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M25855' (33 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] Sus scrofa
    Last Modified in 02/05/19
    1011110605001
    [2] Hippopotamus
    Last Modified in 02/05/19
    211069802001
    [3] † Pakicetidae
    Last Modified in 04/10/19
    1710610400001
    [4] † Ambulocetus
    Last Modified in 04/10/19
    69555200001
    [5] † Remingtonocetus
    Last Modified in 04/10/19
    34938700001
    [6] † Dalanistes
    Last Modified in 04/10/19
    49737101001
    [7] † Andrewsiphius
    Last Modified in 04/10/19
    49747100001
    [8] † Kutchicetus
    Last Modified in 04/10/19
    57676400001
    [9] † Maiacetus
    Last Modified in 04/10/19
    67555400001
    [10] † Artiocetus
    Last Modified in 04/10/19
    45787501001
    [11] † Gaviacetus
    Last Modified in 04/10/19
    53756800001
    [12] † Rodhocetus
    Last Modified in 04/10/19
    35898600001
    [13] † Carolinacetus
    Last Modified in 04/10/19
    47787400001
    [14] † Aegyptocetus
    Last Modified in 04/10/19
    77444400001
    [15] † Protocetus
    Last Modified in 04/10/19
    40858100001
    [16] † Natchitochia
    Last Modified in 04/10/19
    105161600001
    [17] † ChM pv6950
    Last Modified in 04/10/19
    92362900001
    [18] † Georgiacetus
    Last Modified in 04/10/19
    1410710700001
    [19] † Eocetus
    Last Modified in 04/10/19
    94302601001
    [20] † Basilotritus
    Last Modified in 04/10/19
    98222201001
    [21] † Babiacetus
    Last Modified in 04/10/19
    61676000001
    [22] † Basilosaurus
    Last Modified in 04/10/19
    611411401001
    [23] † Dorudon
    Last Modified in 04/10/19
    911211101001
    [24] † Qaisracetus
    Last Modified in 04/10/19
    39838002001
    [25] † MUSM 1443
    Last Modified in 04/10/19
    108131300001
    [26] † Supayacetus
    Last Modified in 04/10/19
    106151500001
    [27] † Ocucajea
    Last Modified in 04/10/19
    106171200001
    [28] † Saghacetus
    Last Modified in 04/10/19
    39828200001
    [29] † Zygorhiza
    Last Modified in 04/10/19
    22999900001
    [30] † Ancalecetus
    Last Modified in 04/10/19
    50717100001
    [31] † Cynthiacetus
    Last Modified in 04/10/19
    45757501001
    [32] † Chrysocetus
    Last Modified in 04/10/19
    82393900001
    [33] † MUSM 3580
    Last Modified in 04/10/19
    87343400001


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    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views1272
    Project overview200
    Matrix views140Matrix landing page (109 views); Character-taxon matrix (31 views);
    Taxon list517
    Media views217Media search (189 views); M657092 (28 views);
    Views for media list68
    Specimen list90
    Bibliography40




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    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project29
    Matrix downloads7Character-taxon matrix (7 downloads);
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