Project 3708: M. Iijima, Y. Kobayashi. 2019. Mosaic nature in the skeleton of East Asian crocodylians fills the morphological gap between “Tomistominae” and Gavialinae. Cladistics. 35 (6):623-632.
Specimen: † Toyotamaphimeia machikanensis (MOUF:00001)
View: skeleton reconstruction

Abstract

Crocodylian systematics has long been confounded by conflicting hypotheses of higher level relationships—although molecular data sets strongly supported the sister‐taxon relationship of Tomistoma and Gavialis, morphological data sets placed Gavialis as sister to all other living taxa. One of the perceived difficulties in interpreting morphological character evolution on the molecular tree is the extensive character reversal occurring in Gavialinae, the mechanism of which has yet to be explained. Here, we provide evidence of gavialine‐specific atavistic characters from East Asian “tomistomines” Penghusuchus pani and Toyotamaphimeia machikanensis. These taxa exhibit a mosaic assembly of “tomistomine” and gavialine features, which fill the gap between the two longirostrine groups. Although the parsimony analysis of morphological data (69 taxa, 254 characters) still supports the previous morphological hypothesis, the alternative tree that was forced to fit the molecular hypothesis was insignificantly (5/954 steps; 0.52%) longer than the unconstrained tree, suggesting that morphological evolution can also be interpreted on the molecular tree. Although the problem of stratigraphic gaps remains, future studies may be directed to resolving the interrelationships within Gavialoidea, a large longirostrine group of crocodylians, in the molecular tree context.


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Article DOI: 10.1111/cla.12372

Project DOI: 10.7934/P3708, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P3708
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 2 Documents
  • 69 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 254 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 732.75k

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 10730
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 254
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 599
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:254/0
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MorphoBank Project 3708

    Authors' Institutions

    • Hokkaido University

    • Nagoya University

    • Phoenix Bioinformatics

    • Hefei University of Technology



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
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    medialabels
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    MorphoBank Curator
    Project Administrator
    1110000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    Masaya Iijima
    Full membership
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M26800' (69 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
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    scored
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    NPA
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    "-" cellscell images labels on
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    [1] Bernissartia fagesii
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    8616816800002
    [2] Iharkutosuchus makadii
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    12612812800002
    [3] Hylaeochampsa vectiana
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    15210210200002
    [4] Allodaposuchus precedens
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    14211211200002
    [5] Eothoracosaurus mississippiensis
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    11613813800002
    [6] Eosuchus lerichei
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    11114314300002
    [7] Eosuchus minor
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    7717817700002
    [8] Ocepesuchus eoafricanus
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    211434300002
    [9] Thoracosaurus macrorhynchus
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    8516916900002
    [10] Thoracosaurus neocesariensis
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    10015515400002
    [11] Aktiogavialis portoricensis
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    219353500002
    [12] Eogavialis africanum
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    7517917900002
    [13] Argochampsa krebsi
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    12213313200002
    [14] Piscogavialis jugaliperforatus
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    11114414300002
    [15] Ikanogavialis gameroi
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    14411011000002
    [16] Siquisiquesuchus venezuelensis
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    164909000002
    [17] Gryposuchus colombianus
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    7318218100002
    [18] Gavialis gangeticus
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    025425400002
    [19] Siwalik gavialis
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    11813613600002
    [20] Borealosuchus sternbergii
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    4620820800002
    [21] Borealosuchus wilsoni
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    10514914900002
    [22] Borealosuchus formidabilis
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    3222222200002
    [23] Leidyosuchus canadensis
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    7517917900002
    [24] Diplocynodon darwini
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    6518918900002
    [25] Caiman crocodilus
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    025725400002
    [26] Alligator mississippiensis
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    025525400002
    [27] Brachychampsa montana
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    4421021000002
    [28] Stangerochampsa mccabei
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    6518918900002
    [29] Planocrania hengdongensis
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    171848300002
    [30] Planocrania datangensis
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    177777700002
    [31] Boverisuchus vorax
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    6718718700002
    [32] Asiatosuchus germanicus
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    9416016000002
    [33] Prodiplocynodon langi
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    13312112100002
    [34] Crocodylus depressifrons
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    6918518500002
    [35] Crocodylus affinis
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    3222222200002
    [36] Crocodylus acer
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    12313113100002
    [37] Brachyuranochampsa eversolei
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    13112312300002
    [38] Crocodylus megarhinus
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    10614814800002
    [39] Harpacochampsa camfieldensis
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    171838300002
    [40] Kambara
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    7717717700002
    [41] Australosuchus clarkae
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    10115315300002
    [42] Mecistops cataphractus
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    125325300002
    [43] Crocodylus porosus
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    025425400002
    [44] Crocodylus niloticus
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    025425400002
    [45] Crocodylus rhombifer
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    125325300002
    [46] Crocodylus palaeindicus
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    9316116100002
    [47] Rimasuchus lloydi
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    13112312300002
    [48] Voay robustus
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    5819619600002
    [49] Osteolaemus tetraspis
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    025425400002
    [50] Euthecodon brumpti
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    9515915900002
    [51] Euthecodon arambourgi
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    13511911900002
    [52] Maroccosuchus zennaroi
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    9216316200002
    [53] Kentisuchus spenceri
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    11513913900002
    [54] Megadontosuchus arduini
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    177787700002
    [55] Dollosuchoides densmorei
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    9515915900002
    [56] Thecachampsa carolinensis
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    9915515500002
    [57] Thecachampsa antiqua
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    6119319300002
    [58] Penghusuchus pani
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    9216216200002
    [59] Yage tomisotomine
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    170918400002
    [60] † Toyotamaphimeia machikanensis
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    6818618600002
    [61] Tomistoma cairense
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    14311111100002
    [62] Tomistoma coppensi
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    15010610400002
    [63] Paratomistoma courti
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    183717100002
    [64] Tomistoma schlegelii
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    125325300002
    [65] Tomistoma lusitanica
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    9616215800002
    [66] Gavialosuchus eggenburgensis
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    15310110100002
    [67] Xaymacachampsa kugleri
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    231232300002
    [68] Kentisuchus astrei
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    214424000002
    [69] Maomingosuchus petrolica
    Last Modified in 06/30/20
    5420120000002


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    Documents list42
    Bibliography18
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    Specimen list48
    Taxon list96
    Matrix views14Matrix landing page (14 views);




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