Project 431: G. Billet. 2010. New Observations on the Skull of Pyrotherium (Pyrotheria, Mammalia) and New Phylogenetic Hypotheses on South American Ungulates. Journal of Mammalian Evolution. 17 (1):21-59.
Specimen: † Pyrotherium romeroi (ACM:3207)
View: Skull, lateral

Abstract

The Cenozoic South American endemic pyrotheres, mostly characterized by a bilophodont dentition, are one of the most mysterious ungulates ever known. Even though many specialists have investigated this group, the fascinating question of its origin is still unresolved after more than a century of study. This paper provides a new description of the only known pyrothere skull, that of Pyrotherium from the Deseadan of Patagonia. Detailed comparison of the cranial anatomy indicates strong similarities with the Notoungulata, especially in the auditory region, as already mentioned by some authors. Intriguing similarities are also detected in the anterior dentition of Pyrotherium and the Casamayoran notoungulate Notostylops. These resemblances suggest a unique relationship between Pyrotheria and Notoungulata, specifically between Pyrotheria and Notostylops. These hypotheses are tested through a series of phylogenetic analyses of South American ungulate craniodental anatomy, primarily focusing on Notoungulata and Pyrotheria. These phylogenetic analyses are the first to encompass such a diversity of South American ungulate taxa. When including the bunodont taxon Proticia usually attributed to the Pyrotheria, the strict consensus of the analysis does not present much resolution. When excluding it, the analysis supports the nesting of the pyrotheres within the Notoungulata via an exclusive relationship with Notostylops. This relationship is supported by both cranial and dental anatomy. The analysis also supports the position of Astrapotheria as the sister group of the Notoungulata. It does not support, however, the monophyly of the Litopterna. The clustering of Pyrotheria, Notoungulata, and Astrapotheria supports an isolated evolutionary history of these ungulates in South America similar to that of afrotherian mammals in Africa. These results give rise to new perspectives in research on South American endemic ungulate evolution.


Read the article »

Project DOI: 10.7934/P431, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P431
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 1 Document
  • 65 Taxa
  • 2 Specimens
  • 141 Characters


Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 6333
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 141
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 299
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:141/0
Currently Viewing:
MorphoBank Project 431


    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    MorphoBank Curator
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 01/07/16
    6411141006333
    (5816, 0, 517)
    000
    Maureen Admin
    Full membership
    Last logged in 01/14/11
    1100000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    Guillaume Billet
    Full membership
    Last logged in 11/23/10
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    Seth Kaufman
    Full membership
    Last logged in Never
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M1001' (64 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] Leptictis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    6105105030004
    [2] Phenacodus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3101101037004
    [3] Meniscotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1104104036004
    [4] Protolipterna
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    992222020004
    [5] Proterotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    88989044004
    [6] Trigonostylops
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    149494033004
    [7] Astrapotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    79594040004
    [8] Pyrotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    358282024004
    [9] Notostylops
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    113613604004
    [10] Henricosbornia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    98414102004
    [11] Simpsonotus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2011911902004
    [12] Pleurostylodon
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1013012902004
    [13] Thomashuxleya
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3610310302004
    [14] Pampahippus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    78616102004
    [15] Periphragnis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    713313202004
    [16] Ryphodon
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    48909003004
    [17] Puelia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    47939301004
    [18] Leontinia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1212612603004
    [19] Colpodon
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1911911903004
    [20] Ancylocoelus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3710010004004
    [21] Scarittia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3410510502004
    [22] Homalodotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1012812803004
    [23] Asmodeus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    61777703004
    [24] Rhynchippus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    813213201004
    [25] Eurygenium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    52888801004
    [26] Pascualihippus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    55868501004
    [27] Eomorphippus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    68747201004
    [28] Morphippus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2711311301004
    [29] Argyrohippus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2811311201004
    [30] Nesodon
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    513413303004
    [31] Adinotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    513413303004
    [32] Hoffstetterius
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3410010007004
    [33] Ponanskytherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3110210208004
    [34] Toxodon
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3310010008004
    [35] Colbertia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2411711601004
    [36] Oldfieldthomasia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1112812802004
    [37] Campanorco
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    43969602004
    [38] Acropithecus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    65747402004
    [39] Ultrapithecus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    94454502004
    [40] Notopithecus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    413313304004
    [41] Archaeophylus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    120181803004
    [42] Cochilius
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    39999903004
    [43] Plagiarthrus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    47898905004
    [44] Protypotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1911811705004
    [45] Miocochilius
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    45919105004
    [46] Interatherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2910610606004
    [47] Federicoanaya
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3410210205004
    [48] Trachytherus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    813113102004
    [49] Plesiotypotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    22105105014004
    [50] Mesotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    27100100014004
    [51] Eohyrax
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    86535302004
    [52] Pseudhyrax
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    69707002004
    [53] Archaeotypotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    56838302004
    [54] Archaeohyrax
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    613413302004
    [55] Prohegetotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    51888802004
    [56] Hegetotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2711311202004
    [57] Prosotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    498181011004
    [58] Paedotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    369191014004
    [59] Proticia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    120151506004
    [60] Colombitherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    112212108004
    [61] Baguatherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    108242409004
    [62] Propyrotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    952727019004
    [63] Carolozittelia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1012525015004
    [64] Gryphodon
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1201010011004


    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views22046
    Media views3032Media search (2592 views); M102515 (440 views);
    Project overview2789
    Taxon list10404
    Specimen list2028
    Views for media list1012
    Matrix views1270Matrix landing page (1068 views); Pyrotherium (202 views);
    Bibliography648
    Documents list863




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project192
    Media downloads3M102515 (3 downloads);
    Project downloads173
    Matrix downloads14Pyrotherium (14 downloads);
    Document downloads2Copyright information for exemplar media (2 downloads);