Project 561: R. G. Beutel, F. Friedrich, T. Hörnschemeyer, H. Pohl, F. Hünefeld, F. Beckmann, R. Meier, B. Misof, M. F. Whiting, L. Vilhelmsen. 2011. Morphological and molecular evidence converge upon a robust phylogeny of the megadiverse Holometabola. Cladistics. 27 (4):341–355.
Specimen: Caurinus (unvouchered)

Abstract

We present the largest morphological character set ever compiled for Holometabola. This was made possible through an optimized acquisition of data. Based on our analyses and recently published hypotheses based on molecular data, we discuss higher-level phylogeny and evolutionary changes. We comment on the information content of different character systems and discuss the role of morphology in the age of phylogenomics. Microcomputer tomography in combination with other techniques proved highly efficient for acquiring and documenting morphological data. Detailed anatomical information (356 characters) is now available for 30 representatives of all holometabolan orders. A combination of traditional and novel techniques complemented each other and rapidly provided reliable data. In addition, our approach facilitates documenting the anatomy of model organisms. Our results show little congruence with studies based on rRNA, but confirm most clades retrieved in a recent study based on nuclear genes: Holometabola excluding Hymenoptera, Coleopterida (= Strepsiptera + Coleoptera), Neuropterida excl. Neuroptera, and Mecoptera. Mecopterida (= Antliophora + Amphiesmenoptera) was retrieved only in Bayesian analyses. All orders except Megaloptera are monophyletic. Problems in the analyses are caused by taxa with numerous autapomorphies and/or inapplicable character states due to the loss of major structures (such as wings). Different factors have contributed to the evolutionary success of various holometabolan lineages. It is likely that good flying performance, the ability to occupy different habitats as larvae and adults, parasitism, liquid feeding, and co-evolution with flowering plants have played important roles. We argue that even in the “age of phylogenomics”, comparative morphology will still play a vital role. In addition, morphology is essential for reconstructing major evolutionary transformations at the phenotypic level, for testing evolutionary scenarios, and for placing fossil taxa. © The Willi Hennig Society 2010.


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Project DOI: 10.7934/P561, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P561
This project containsMatrices
  • 2 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 4 Documents
  • 35 Taxa
  • 2 Specimens
  • 356 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 3 MB

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 11571
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 356
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 855
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:356/0
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MorphoBank Project 561


    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    MorphoBank Curator
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 11/27/12
    2220000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    Maureen Admin
    Full membership
    Last logged in 11/26/12
    33003560011571
    (10489, 0, 1082)
    000
    Rolf Beutel
    Full membership
    Last logged in 10/20/12
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    Frank Friedrich
    Full membership
    Last logged in Never
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    Seth Kaufman
    Full membership
    Last logged in Never
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M1841' (34 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
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    [1] Pteronarcyidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    18316316022005
    [2] Tettigoniidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    5324324027005
    [3] Zorotypidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    6325321029005
    [4] Caeciliusidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4333333019005
    [5] Nevrorthidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    24321321011005
    [6] Osmylidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    11330330015005
    [7] Chrysopidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    11328328017005
    [8] Raphidiidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    5341341010005
    [9] Inocelliidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    9825125107005
    [10] Sialidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    634534406005
    [11] Corydalidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1734033108005
    [12] Ommatidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    60275274022005
    [13] Cupedidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    10320320026005
    [14] Helophoridae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    11314314031005
    [15] Trachypachidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    17303303036005
    [16] Xyelidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    6328328022005
    [17] Tenthredinidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    8327323025005
    [18] Diprionidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    25309309022005
    [19] Rhyacophilidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2332332022005
    [20] Limnephilidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    49290289018005
    [21] Micropterigidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    9328327020005
    [22] Agathiphagidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    11326325020005
    [23] Eriocraniidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    25310310021005
    [24] Boreus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4256254098005
    [25] Caurinus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    352222210100005
    [26] Panorpidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    235034905005
    [27] Bittacidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    9334334013005
    [28] Nannochoristidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    234534509005
    [29] Pulicidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    42282280124005
    [30] Tipulidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    8324319029005
    [31] Culicidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    19302300037005
    [32] Bibionidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    14302299043005
    [33] Mengenillidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    11261261084005
    [34] Xenidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    24249248084005


    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views26145
    Project overview2945
    Media views4897Media search (3847 views); M149669 (527 views); M149668 (523 views);
    Matrix views1924Matrix landing page (1702 views); Matrix (222 views);
    Specimen list3031
    Bibliography828
    Taxon list10935
    Documents list1585




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project239
    Matrix downloads6Matrix (6 downloads);
    Project downloads228
    Document downloads4Character List (3 downloads); Matrix (1 download);
    Media downloads1M149669 (1 download);