Project 1021: N. S. Heckeberg. 2017. A Comprehensive Approach towards the Phylogeny and Evolution of Cervidae - Chapter 3. Dissertation, LMU Munich. (In Press)
Specimen: † Procervulus dichotomus (SNSB-BSPG/1979 XV 555)
View: lateral

Abstract

Cervidae (deer) belong to Ruminantia together with Tragulidae (chevrotains), Antilocapridae (pronghorns), Moschidae (musk deer), Giraffidae (giraffes), and Bovidae (cattle, sheep, antelopes). After bovids, cervids are the second most diverse group of ruminants and large herbivores in general. Cervids are natively distributed in the Americas, Europe and Asia inhabiting a broad variety of habitats.
Antlers, deciduous, osseous branched outgrowths of the frontal bone, are synapomorphic for all living member of Cervidae except for the Chinese water deer, Hydropotes inermis, in which they have presumably been lost. They are unique cranial appendages, which are shed and rebuilt at intervals. The antlerogenic process is controlled by a complex interaction of fluctuating levels of several hormones, most importantly testosterone.

The oldest antler remains are recorded from the early Miocene. These have often been interpreted as non-deciduous appendages in the past, because of supposed permanent skin coverage and the lack of a burr. Extensive comparative morphological analyses of external features of the antler and of the abscission area showed that antlers of all extant and of eight Miocene cervid genera, including those of most of the earliest cervids Procervulus,Ligeromeryx, and Lagomeryx were deciduous. This insight is particularly important for the systematic classification of early Miocene species as Cervidae, because the absence of antler shedding and rebuilding would exclude them from the total group Cervidae.

Cervid systematics has been puzzling researchers for over 150 years. The initial, gross (sub)classifications based on morphology and comparative anatomy are mostly supported by molecular data. In recent decades, molecular systematics has provided new input, but consensus could only be partially reached. Cervids are traditionally subdivided into two subfamilies, Cervinae, consisting of Muntiacini and Cervini, and Capreolinae, consisting of Alceini, Capreolini, Odocoileini, and Rangiferini. While the systematic relationships within Muntiacini and Cervini are, with very few exceptions, resolved, systematic relationships within Capreolinae are much more controversial. The position of Capreolini and Alceini is uncertain and there are many polyphylies within Odocoileini. The latter is the youngest clade of cervids with a quick diversification rate, which makes resolving the systematic relationships more difficult. Also, the rich fossil record of cervids has never been extensively phylogenetically tested concerning potential systematic relationships of fossil representatives to extant cervid taxa.

The aim of this work was to investigate the systematic relationships of extant and fossil cervids using molecular and morphological characters and make implications about their evolutionary history based on the phylogenetic reconstructions.

To achieve these objectives, molecular data were compiled primarily from public data bases such as GenBank. Some cervid species still lack molecular data because they are difficult to access in the wild. In order to complement the existing data, partial mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences from museum specimens of five previously unrecorded species were extracted. The resulting data set was so far the most extensive concerning the taxon sampling for cervids.
All molecular data were combined to a data set including 17709 base pairs across five nuclear markers and the complete mitochondrial genome of 50 extant and one fossil cervid species. Several analyses using different data partitions, taxon sampling, partitioning schemes, and optimality criteria were undertaken. Divergence time estimates were undertaken on the molecular data sets using molecular clock node dating.

Additionally, the most extensive morphological character matrix for such a broad cervid taxon sampling was compiled. In total 168 cranial and dental characters of 41 extant and 29 fossil cervid species were scored. Due to the highly conservative morphological features of cervids, solving systematic relationships was challenging for both extant and fossil species. However, it was possible to determine several characters useful to diagnose cervid subclades. The morphological and molecular data were combined for a total evidence approach and other phylogenetic testing. A tip dating analyses was also undertaken on the total evidence data set.

Molecular topologies were partially in conflict with morphological topologies. Nuclear topologies suggested different systematic relationships for some taxa than the mitochondrial topologies. The combined molecular analyses provided robust topologies. The total evidence analyses were less robust and still contained large areas of unresolved taxa. Alternative approaches to combine both data sets and fossil and extant taxa were more useful. The two different divergence time estimate approaches provided differing but feasible results for each approach.
The results showed that most of the Miocene cervids were considered to be more closely related to each other than to any other cervid. They were positioned either between the outgroup and all other cervids or as the sister taxon to Muntiacini. Two Miocene cervids were frequently placed within Muntiacini. Plio- and Pleistocene cervids could often be affiliated to Cervini, Odocoileini or Capreolini. Their morphology is more similar to extant cervids than the morphology of most Miocene cervids.

The phylogenetic analyses of this work provide new insights into the evolutionary history of cervids. New systematic relationships were observed, some uncertainties persist and resolving phylogenetic relationships within certain taxa remain challenging. The analyses on the extensive data sets presented here concretised systematic problems and uncertainties, which can now better be targeted with phylogenetic approaches. Several fossil cervids could be successfully related to living representatives, confirming previously assumed affiliations based on qualitative comparisons and introducing new hypotheses.
Cervid systematics remains an interesting and fascinating area of research with exciting new results to be expected in the future.



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Project DOI: 10.7934/P1021, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P1021
This project containsMatrices
  • 837 Media
  • 2 Matrices
  • 160 Taxa
  • 704 Specimens
  • 168 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 1599 MB

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 13315
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 168
Total characters with associated media: 1
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 411
Total character states with associated media: 319
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:168/0
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MorphoBank Project 1021


    Members

    member name taxa specimens media media
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    notes  media
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    Nicola Heckeberg
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 11/29/17
    1607048370168393335013315
    (10674, 2398, 243)
    3149000
    Robert Asher
    Observer
    Last logged in 05/12/17
    0000000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    00000
    Gertrud Rössner
    Observer
    Last logged in 05/01/17
    0000000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    00000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M2420' (78 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] Alces alces
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0898810003
    [2] Axis axis
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0898810003
    [3] Axis porcinus
    Last Modified in 01/09/14
    0908810003
    [4] Blastocerus dichotomus
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0888810003
    [5] Capreolus capreolus
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0918810003
    [6] Capreolus pygargus
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0908810003
    [7] Cervus canadensis
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0888810003
    [8] Cervus elaphus
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0908900003
    [9] Cervus nippon
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0908810003
    [10] Dama dama
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0888810003
    [11] Elaphodus cephalophus
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0918702003
    [12] Elaphurus davidianus
    Last Modified in 01/14/15
    0898800003
    [13] Hippocamelus antisensis
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0918900003
    [14] Hippocamelus bisulcus
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0908900003
    [15] Hydropotes inermis
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    07070118003
    [16] Mazama americana
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0898612003
    [17] Mazama bricenii
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0848432003
    [18] Mazama chunyi
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0858522003
    [19] Mazama gouazoubira
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0868612003
    [20] Mazama nemorivaga
    Last Modified in 02/26/14
    0848432003
    [21] Mazama rufina
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0838342003
    [22] Muntiacus atherodes
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0878611003
    [23] Muntiacus crinifrons
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0868521003
    [24] Muntiacus feae
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0908621003
    [25] Muntiacus muntjak
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0908801003
    [26] Muntiacus reevesi
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0888801003
    [27] Muntiacus truongsonensis
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0848351003
    [28] Muntiacus vuquangensis
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0878711003
    [29] Odocoileus hemionus
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0898800003
    [30] Odocoileus virginianus
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0898810003
    [31] Ozotoceros bezoarticus
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0898810003
    [32] Cervus albirostris
    Last Modified in 11/27/17
    0838360003
    [33] Pudu puda
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0888612003
    [34] Rangifer tarandus
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0918900003
    [35] Rucervus duvaucelii
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0898810003
    [36] Rucervus eldii
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0898810003
    [37] Rucervus schomburgki
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0908900003
    [38] Rusa alfredi
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0878540003
    [39] Rusa marianna
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0898810003
    [40] Rusa timorensis
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0878630003
    [41] Rusa unicolor
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0908900003
    [42] † Arvernoceros ardei
    Last Modified in 08/11/15
    02523640003
    [43] † Axis lydekkeri
    Last Modified in 10/07/15
    06969200003
    [44] † Candiacervus ropalophorus
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0848350003
    [45] † Cervus australis
    Last Modified in 11/19/14
    02019690003
    [46] † Cervus perolensis
    Last Modified in 11/19/14
    01110780003
    [47] † Cervus philisi
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    05957310003
    [48] † Cervus sivalensis
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    04141480003
    [49] † Croizetoceros ramosus
    Last Modified in 10/07/15
    02424650003
    [50] † Dicrocerus elegans
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    04745421003
    [51] † Eostyloceros hezhengensis
    Last Modified in 10/14/15
    02220661003
    [52] † Eucladoceros ctenoides
    Last Modified in 10/07/15
    07368170003
    [53] † Euprox furcatus
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    02523631003
    [54] † Heteroprox larteti
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    03228581003
    [55] † Lagomeryx parvulus
    Last Modified in 10/12/15
    01312751003
    [56] † Ligeromeryx praestans
    Last Modified in 10/07/15
    01413741003
    [57] † Metacervocerus pardinensis
    Last Modified in 10/07/15
    0119780003
    [58] † Metacervocerus rhenanus
    Last Modified in 10/07/15
    02828610003
    [59] † Megaloceros giganteus
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0908800003
    [60] † Muntiacus (RGM) muntjak
    Last Modified in 11/19/14
    099791003
    [61] † Odocoileus (NHM)
    Last Modified in 11/19/14
    02625630003
    [62] † Odocoileus virginianus (bspg)
    Last Modified in 11/29/17
    04140480003
    [63] † Palaeoplatyceros hispanicus
    Last Modified in 11/19/14
    01616721003
    [64] † Pliocervus matheroni
    Last Modified in 10/15/15
    0126770003
    [65] † Praeelaphus etueriarum
    Last Modified in 10/07/15
    098800003
    [66] † Praeelaphus perrieri
    Last Modified in 10/07/15
    0119780003
    [67] † Procapreolus cusanus
    Last Modified in 10/07/15
    03129580003
    [68] † Procervulus dichotomus
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    07371161003
    [69] † Procervulus praelucidus
    Last Modified in 02/14/14
    01515731003
    [70] † Rusa kendengensis
    Last Modified in 10/07/15
    01514740003
    [71] † Dremotherium feignouxi
    Last Modified in 10/03/14
    031313919003
    [72] † Hypertragulus calcaratus
    Last Modified in 10/03/14
    040403019003
    [73] Antilocapra americana
    Last Modified in 10/03/14
    06666419003
    [74] Boselaphus tragocamelus
    Last Modified in 10/03/14
    06565519003
    [75] Hyemoschus aquaticus
    Last Modified in 02/26/14
    06363719003
    [76] Moschus moschiferus
    Last Modified in 10/03/14
    06969119003
    [77] Okapia johnstoni
    Last Modified in 10/03/14
    06766419003
    [78] Tragelaphus scriptus
    Last Modified in 10/03/14
    06868219003


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M2449' (78 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] Alces alces
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0817900003
    [2] Axis axis
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0827810003
    [3] Axis porcinus
    Last Modified in 01/09/14
    0827900003
    [4] Blastocerus dichotomus
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0887800003
    [5] Capreolus capreolus
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0857601003
    [6] Capreolus pygargus
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0827900003
    [7] Cervus canadensis
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0797900003
    [8] Cervus elaphus
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0847801003
    [9] Cervus nippon
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0797810003
    [10] Dama dama
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0797810003
    [11] Elaphodus cephalophus
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0807900003
    [12] Elaphurus davidianus
    Last Modified in 01/14/15
    0827810003
    [13] Hippocamelus antisensis
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0807810003
    [14] Hippocamelus bisulcus
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0797630003
    [15] Hydropotes inermis
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0807900003
    [16] Mazama americana
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0807601003
    [17] Mazama bricenii
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0787810003
    [18] Mazama chunyi
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0797800003
    [19] Mazama gouazoubira
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0837900003
    [20] Mazama nemorivaga
    Last Modified in 02/26/14
    0787810003
    [21] Mazama rufina
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0787810003
    [22] Muntiacus atherodes
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0777720003
    [23] Muntiacus crinifrons
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    05151280003
    [24] Muntiacus feae
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0777540003
    [25] Muntiacus muntjak
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0907500003
    [26] Muntiacus reevesi
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0857301003
    [27] Muntiacus truongsonensis
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    06060190003
    [28] Muntiacus vuquangensis
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0777720003
    [29] Odocoileus hemionus
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0897210003
    [30] Odocoileus virginianus
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0817900003
    [31] Ozotoceros bezoarticus
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0817810003
    [32] Cervus albirostris
    Last Modified in 11/27/17
    0717180003
    [33] Pudu puda
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0817900003
    [34] Rangifer tarandus
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0837312003
    [35] Rucervus duvaucelii
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0817900003
    [36] Rucervus eldii
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0807900003
    [37] Rucervus schomburgki
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    05958210003
    [38] Rusa alfredi
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0817900003
    [39] Rusa marianna
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0837900003
    [40] Rusa timorensis
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0847900003
    [41] Rusa unicolor
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0887800003
    [42] † Arvernoceros ardei
    Last Modified in 08/11/15
    0746182003
    [43] † Axis lydekkeri
    Last Modified in 10/07/15
    06661160003
    [44] † Candiacervus ropalophorus
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0767050003
    [45] † Cervus australis
    Last Modified in 11/19/14
    04039400003
    [46] † Cervus perolensis
    Last Modified in 11/19/14
    0737260003
    [47] † Cervus philisi
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0807630003
    [48] † Cervus sivalensis
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    04038410003
    [49] † Croizetoceros ramosus
    Last Modified in 10/07/15
    0737060003
    [50] † Dicrocerus elegans
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0777140003
    [51] † Eostyloceros hezhengensis
    Last Modified in 10/14/15
    02929500003
    [52] † Eucladoceros ctenoides
    Last Modified in 10/07/15
    0807530003
    [53] † Euprox furcatus
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    06963120003
    [54] † Heteroprox larteti
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    05853210003
    [55] † Lagomeryx parvulus
    Last Modified in 10/12/15
    0736770003
    [56] † Ligeromeryx praestans
    Last Modified in 10/07/15
    03735420003
    [57] † Megaloceros giganteus
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0837800003
    [58] † Metacervocerus pardinensis
    Last Modified in 10/07/15
    0727270003
    [59] † Metacervocerus rhenanus
    Last Modified in 10/07/15
    0747350003
    [60] † Muntiacus (RGM) muntjak
    Last Modified in 11/19/14
    06464150003
    [61] † Odocoileus (NHM)
    Last Modified in 11/19/14
    06158200003
    [62] † Odocoileus virginianus (bspg)
    Last Modified in 11/29/17
    03635440003
    [63] † Palaeoplatyceros hispanicus
    Last Modified in 11/19/14
    04543340003
    [64] † Pliocervus matheroni
    Last Modified in 10/15/15
    05954200003
    [65] † Praeelaphus etueriarum
    Last Modified in 10/07/15
    06666121003
    [66] † Praeelaphus perrieri
    Last Modified in 10/07/15
    0737270003
    [67] † Procapreolus cusanus
    Last Modified in 10/07/15
    06439150003
    [68] † Procervulus dichotomus
    Last Modified in 12/24/13
    0717080003
    [69] † Procervulus praelucidus
    Last Modified in 02/14/14
    0756850003
    [70] † Rusa kendengensis
    Last Modified in 10/07/15
    05857220003
    [71] † Dremotherium feignouxi
    Last Modified in 10/03/14
    0737243003
    [72] † Hypertragulus calcaratus
    Last Modified in 10/03/14
    045452212003
    [73] Antilocapra americana
    Last Modified in 10/03/14
    0747432003
    [74] Boselaphus tragocamelus
    Last Modified in 10/03/14
    0707090003
    [75] Hyemoschus aquaticus
    Last Modified in 02/26/14
    06666211003
    [76] Moschus moschiferus
    Last Modified in 10/03/14
    0797900003
    [77] Okapia johnstoni
    Last Modified in 10/03/14
    0797801003
    [78] Tragelaphus scriptus
    Last Modified in 10/03/14
    0737342003


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M461035 (46 views); M460998 (46 views); M461092 (21 views); M461060 (22 views); M461110 (27 views); M461177 (24 views); M461102 (21 views); M461170 (22 views); M461068 (21 views); M461141 (23 views); M461164 (22 views); M461103 (25 views); M461083 (21 views); M461181 (22 views); M461154 (22 views); M461080 (24 views); M461160 (22 views); M461180 (22 views); M461097 (21 views); M461149 (22 views); M461159 (21 views); M461098 (27 views); M461156 (23 views); M461165 (27 views); M461113 (21 views); M461061 (28 views); M461151 (23 views); M461162 (21 views); M461139 (23 views); M461087 (23 views); M461131 (21 views); M461175 (28 views); M461126 (22 views); M461138 (24 views); M461100 (23 views); M461178 (29 views); M461161 (22 views); M461176 (23 views); M461153 (23 views); M461106 (26 views); M461129 (24 views); M461094 (22 views); M461184 (21 views); M461128 (21 views); M461071 (26 views); M461065 (23 views); M461163 (22 views); M461085 (25 views); M461155 (25 views); M461062 (24 views); M461078 (24 views); M461091 (26 views); M461074 (21 views); M461166 (22 views); M461095 (27 views); M461147 (21 views); M461140 (22 views); M461120 (27 views); M461179 (23 views); M461104 (21 views); M461137 (22 views); M461079 (27 views); M461117 (22 views); M461174 (21 views); M461063 (21 views); M461111 (25 views); M461119 (22 views); M461089 (22 views); M461105 (25 views); M461171 (24 views); M461150 (21 views); M461146 (23 views); M461070 (22 views); M461130 (24 views); M461090 (23 views); M461152 (21 views); M461101 (26 views); M461109 (22 views); M461064 (21 views); M461145 (25 views); M461086 (22 views); M461115 (23 views); M461114 (21 views); M461099 (23 views); M461093 (23 views); M461088 (24 views); M461122 (25 views); M461123 (22 views); M461148 (24 views); M461072 (26 views); M461066 (27 views); M461135 (23 views); M461107 (23 views); M461127 (22 views); M461081 (21 views); M461118 (21 views); M461136 (24 views); M461158 (22 views); M461073 (21 views); M461112 (22 views); M461144 (26 views); M461157 (24 views); M461121 (24 views); M461173 (22 views); M461183 (23 views); M461134 (21 views); M461067 (22 views); M461096 (26 views); M461133 (22 views); M461075 (23 views); M461167 (22 views); M461124 (24 views); M461125 (23 views); M461142 (27 views); M461108 (23 views); M461077 (24 views); M461082 (24 views); M461182 (21 views); M461132 (23 views); M461143 (22 views); M461168 (22 views); M461076 (21 views); M461069 (24 views); M461172 (21 views); M461116 (23 views); M461169 (27 views); M461084 (24 views); M461340 (3 views); M461531 (4 views); M461586 (4 views); M461603 (4 views); M461712 (61 views); M461298 (1 view); M461299 (1 view); M461300 (2 views); M461303 (1 view); M461308 (1 view); M461307 (2 views); M461306 (1 view); M461304 (1 view); M461344 (2 views); M461345 (1 view); M461351 (1 view); M461353 (1 view); M461352 (6 views); M461346 (1 view); M461347 (1 view); M461349 (1 view); M461350 (1 view); M461348 (1 view); M461395 (1 view); M461400 (1 view); M461409 (3 views); M461411 (4 views); M461419 (2 views); M461422 (2 views); M461424 (2 views); M461436 (1 view); M461437 (1 view); M461438 (1 view); M461522 (1 view); M461672 (1 view); M461666 (1 view); M461702 (1 view); M461703 (2 views); M461717 (1 view); M461718 (1 view); M461723 (1 view); M461724 (1 view); M461725 (1 view); M461721 (1 view); M461722 (1 view); M461720 (2 views); M461715 (1 view); M461714 (1 view); M461713 (1 view); M461704 (1 view); M461705 (1 view); M461706 (2 views); M461707 (1 view); M461708 (1 view); M461709 (1 view); M461710 (2 views); M461711 (1 view); M461701 (1 view); M461410 (1 view); M461412 (1 view); M461413 (1 view); M461414 (2 views); M461415 (1 view); M461416 (1 view); M461417 (1 view); M461418 (1 view); M461420 (2 views); M461421 (1 view); M461423 (3 views); M461425 (2 views); M461426 (1 view); M461427 (1 view); M461428 (1 view); M461429 (1 view); M461430 (1 view); M461431 (1 view); M461432 (1 view); M461433 (1 view); M461434 (1 view); M461435 (1 view); M461408 (1 view); M461407 (1 view); M461406 (2 views); M461381 (1 view); M461250 (1 view); M461399 (1 view); M461882 (3 views); M461868 (2 views); M461869 (1 view); M461870 (1 view); M461871 (1 view); M461872 (1 view); M461873 (1 view); M461874 (1 view); M461875 (1 view); M461876 (1 view); M461877 (1 view); M461878 (1 view); M461879 (1 view); M461880 (1 view); M461881 (1 view); M461883 (1 view); M461210 (1 view); M461211 (1 view); M461217 (1 view); M461216 (1 view); M461221 (1 view); M461222 (1 view); M461255 (1 view); M461238 (1 view); M461339 (2 views); M461343 (1 view);
    Matrix views306Matrix landing page (220 views); Cranial characters - Cervidae (41 views); Dentition characters - Cervidae (45 views);
    Taxon list971
    Specimen list23015
    Views for media list369
    Bibliography107
    Documents list1




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project100
    Project downloads43
    Matrix downloads18Cranial characters - Cervidae (11 downloads); Dentition characters - Cervidae (7 downloads);
    Media downloads39M461712 (3 downloads); M461033 (1 download); M461034 (1 download); M461035 (1 download); M461036 (1 download); M461037 (1 download); M461038 (1 download); M461039 (1 download); M461040 (1 download); M461041 (1 download); M461042 (1 download); M461043 (1 download); M461044 (1 download); M461045 (1 download); M461046 (1 download); M461047 (1 download); M461048 (1 download); M461868 (1 download); M461869 (1 download); M461870 (1 download); M461871 (1 download); M461872 (1 download); M461873 (1 download); M461874 (1 download); M461875 (1 download); M461876 (1 download); M461877 (1 download); M461878 (1 download); M461879 (1 download); M461880 (1 download); M461881 (1 download); M461882 (1 download); M461883 (1 download); M461706 (1 download); M461340 (1 download); M461339 (1 download); M461343 (1 download);