Project 1035: M. Heikkilä, L. Kaila, M. Mutanen, C. Peña, N. Wahlberg. 2012. Cretaceous origin and repeated tertiary diversification of the redefined butterflies. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 279 (1731):1093-1099.
Specimen: Amarynthis meneria (/NW85-9 )
View: dorsal and ventral

Abstract

Although the taxonomy of the ca 18 000 species of butterflies and skippers is well known, the family-level relationships are still debated. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the superfamilies Papilionoidea, Hesperioidea and Hedyloidea to date based on morphological and molecular data. We reconstructed their phylogenetic relationships using parsimony and Bayesian approaches. We estimated times and rates of diversification along lineages in order to reconstruct their evolutionary history. Our results suggest that the butterflies, as traditionally understood, are paraphyletic, with Papilionidae being the sister-group to Hesperioidea, Hedyloidea and all other butterflies. Hence, the families in the current three superfamilies should be placed in a single superfamily Papilionoidea. In addition, we find that Hedylidae is sister to Hesperiidae, and this novel relationship is supported by two morphological characters. The families diverged in the Early Cretaceous but diversified after the Cretaceous–Palaeogene event. The diversification of butterflies is characterized by a slow speciation rate in the lineage leading to Baronia brevicornis, a period of stasis by the skippers after divergence and a burst of diversification in the lineages leading to Nymphalidae, Riodinidae and Lycaenidae.


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Project DOI: 10.7934/P1035, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P1035
This project containsMatrices
  • 13 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 71 Taxa
  • 13 Specimens
  • 185 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 24 MB

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 9162
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 185
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 447
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:185/0
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MorphoBank Project 1035

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    Jo Wolfe
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 10/22/13
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    Niklas Wahlberg
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    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M2297' (58 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
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    [1] Scardia boletella
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1316916408002
    [2] Pterodecta felderi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1017517104002
    [3] Thyris fenestrella
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    88928908002
    [4] Striglina scitaria
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    79795085002
    [5] Macrosoma spp
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2316415903002
    [6] Pyrgus malvae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    218718102002
    [7] Urbanus dominicus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    831019804002
    [8] Thymelicus lineola
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    418417902002
    [9] Carterocephalus silvicola
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    118718202002
    [10] Jemadia pseudognetus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    8110410004002
    [11] Hasora chromus/discolor
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4514213703002
    [12] Trapezites symmomus/luteus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    318618002002
    [13] Euschemon rafflesia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    618317702002
    [14] Ochlodes faunus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    618317702002
    [15] Baronia brevicornis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    6212311904002
    [16] Parnassius apollo
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    218517904002
    [17] Papilio machaon
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    318417804002
    [18] Graphium leonidas/eurypylus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    518117505002
    [19] Troides helena
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    7411010605002
    [20] Parides iphidamas
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    7411110704002
    [21] Pieris rapae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    118818202002
    [22] Aporia crataegi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    218718102002
    [23] Delias hyperate
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    018918302002
    [24] Leptidea sinapis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    218618102002
    [25] Enantia melite/hecabe
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1111107079002
    [26] Colias palaeno
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    018718203002
    [27] Eurema lisa/hecabe
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    418517902002
    [28] Pseudopontia paradoxa
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    7111711301002
    [29] Favonius quercus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    518517901002
    [30] Celastrina argiolus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    218718201002
    [31] Lycaena helle
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    318718101002
    [32] Lucia limbaria
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    618417801002
    [33] Curetis acuta
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    7511310901002
    [34] Poritia erycinoides
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    90989401002
    [35] Miletus boisduvalii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    8110710301002
    [36] Liphyra brassolis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    518117604002
    [37] Riodina lysippus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    8410410001002
    [38] Hamearis lucina
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    218818201002
    [39] Emesis lucinda
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    8510410000002
    [40] Mesosemia lamachus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    8310610200002
    [41] Euselasia eulione
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    8010810401002
    [42] Amarynthis meneria
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    8010810401002
    [43] Melitaea cinxia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    618117603002
    [44] Nymphalis polychloros
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    418317803002
    [45] Apatura ilia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    618117603002
    [46] Limenitis populi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    218518003002
    [47] Aphanthopus hyperantus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    618217603002
    [48] Erebia ligea
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    618217703002
    [49] Libythea celtis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4813813503002
    [50] Danaus plexippus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    318417804002
    [51] Heliconius erato
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    8310410002002
    [52] Actinote thalia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    7810710304002
    [53] Issoria lathonia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    718217602002
    [54] Argynnis paphia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    218518003002
    [55] Morpho achilles
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    7710810503002
    [56] Amathusia phidippus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    7610910603002
    [57] Opsiphanes quiteria
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    8010410203002
    [58] Charaxes jasius
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1017617203002


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