Project 1037: C. R. Congreve, A. Z. Krug, M. E. Patzkowsky. 2015. Phylogenetic revision of the Strophomenida, a diverse and ecologically important Palaeozoic brachiopod order. Palaeontology. 58 (4):743-758.
Specimen: † Leptostrophia sp. (YPM/IP:1922)

Abstract

The order Strophomenida was an ecologically abundant and taxonomically diverse group of Palaeozoic brachiopods that originated in the earliest Ordovician and went extinct in the Carboniferous. During their long geologic range, the Strophomenida survived two of the “Big Five” mass extinction events, the Late Ordovician and the Late Devonian, suggesting that they are potentially informative taxa for studying the evolutionary effects of these two distinct mass extinctions, each with drastically different forcing mechanisms. However, while there have been previous phylogenetic studies on smaller groups within the Strophomenida, the phylogenetic relationships of the whole group are still largely unknown. The group has been divided into two major superfamilies, the Strophomenoidea (strophomenoids) and the Plectambonitoidea (plectambonitoids). Despite being treated as separate clades, the plectambonitoids may form a paraphyletic grade into the strophomenoids. We present a detailed higher level parsimony based phylogenetic analysis of the Strophomenida, consisting of sixty-nine characters and sixty-two exemplar species sampled from the majority of the taxonomically defined families/subfamilies. Several species of basal chonetids (strophochonetids) were also included in this analysis, since they may be closely related to the Strophomenida and share several characters with both the plectambonitoids and strophomenoids. The phylogenetic analysis suggests the plectambonitoids, as originally defined, are paraphyletic to the monophyletic strophomenoids. The basal chonetids are reconstructed as a monophyletic group that is sister to the strophomenoids, suggesting that their proper placement might be within the Strophomenida. The topology also suggests that at least seventeen of the taxonomically defined strophomenoid and plectambonitoid families are likely monophyletic. The Plectambonitidae and the Taffiidae as defined are paraphyletic, and the Grorudiidae and Leptostrophiidae are polyphyletic. Furthermore, subfamilies Leptodontellinae, Dicoelostrophiinae, Palaeostrophomeninae, and Aegiromeninae are raised to the level of the family. When analysed within this phylogenetic context, the Late Ordovician mass extinction event had little effect on the large-scale evolution of the group.


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Article DOI: 10.1111/pala.12177

Project DOI: 10.7934/P1037, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P1037
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 3 Matrices
  • 65 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 71 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 2 MB

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 11251
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 209
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 156
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:209/0
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MorphoBank Project 1037


    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    Curtis Congreve
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 07/27/15
    65112090011251
    (9646, 0, 1605)
    0057
    Andrew Krug
    Full membership
    Last logged in 07/08/14
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    Mark Patzkowsky
    Full membership
    Last logged in Never
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    Judi Sclafani
    Full membership
    Last logged in 06/06/14
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M23282' (62 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] † Billingsella perfecta
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    35353015004
    [2] † Strophomena planumbona
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    4606007004
    [3] † Actinomena orta
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    3656503004
    [4] † Furcitella plicata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    21444406004
    [5] † Bekkerina dorsata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    5616105004
    [6] † Oepikina septata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    3616107004
    [7] † Colaptomena leptostrophoidea
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    65353012004
    [8] † Kjerulfina trigonalis
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    104949012004
    [9] † Rafinesquina alternata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    5575709004
    [10] † Kjaerina poljensis
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    10545407004
    [11] † Leptaena richmondensis
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    6595906004
    [12] † Kiaeromena estonensis
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    15484808004
    [13] † Glyptomena sculpturata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    95151011004
    [14] † Platymena plana
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    7585806004
    [15] † Christiania subquadrata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    28373706004
    [16] † Leptaenoidea rugata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    6595906004
    [17] † Leptaenisca concava
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    7565608004
    [18] † Amphistrophia striata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    7585806004
    [19] † Mesodouvillina subinterstrialis
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    7585806004
    [20] † Maoristrophia neozelanica
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    18474706004
    [21] † Douvillina dutertrei
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    75353011004
    [22] † Protodouvillina inaequistriata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    16494906004
    [23] † Douvillinella filifer
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    6595906004
    [24] † Dicoelostrophia punctatum
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    13525206004
    [25] † Leptodontella caudata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    14505007004
    [26] † Leptostrophia magniventra
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    11525208004
    [27] † Leptostrophia beckii
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    13515107004
    [28] † Brachyprion philomela
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    11525208004
    [29] † Brachyprion semiglobosa
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    6595906004
    [30] † Strophodonta demissa
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    7575707004
    [31] † Parapholidostrophia harperi
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    7575707004
    [32] † Shaleria ornatella
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    11515109004
    [33] † Eostrophonella eothen
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    164242013004
    [34] † Plectambonites planissimus
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    75050014004
    [35] † Isophragma ricevillense
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    25353016004
    [36] † Tafia planoconvexa
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    124444015004
    [37] † Ahtiella lirata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    104747014004
    [38] † Leptella nevadensis
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    173434020004
    [39] † Bimuria superba
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    65454011004
    [40] † Sowerbyites hami
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    15858012004
    [41] † Leptellina? pulchra
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    10545407004
    [42] † Leptelloidea leptelloides
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    05858013004
    [43] † Palaeostrophomena concava
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    1636208004
    [44] † Alwynella ildjemensis
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    1626208004
    [45] † Railtonella scanloni
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    134747011004
    [46] † Leptestia musculosa
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    7555509004
    [47] † Sampo hiiuensis
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    3626206004
    [48] † Xenambonites undosus
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    4585809004
    [49] † Metambonites meritus
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    24424205004
    [50] † Aegiromena aquila
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    144747010004
    [51] † Epelidoaegiria chilidifera
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    13494909004
    [52] † Aegiria norvegica
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    75454010004
    [53] † Hesperomena leptellinoidea
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    24424205004
    [54] † Anoptambonites grayae
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    6585807004
    [55] † Sowerbyella punctostriata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    7616103004
    [56] † Eochonetes clarksvillensis
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    16494906004
    [57] † Plectodonta mariae
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    21454505004
    [58] † Ptychoglyptus virginiensis
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    9555507004
    [59] † Strophochonetes cingulatus
    Last Modified in 06/03/15
    25383808004
    [60] † Borealinetes comestus
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    7555509004
    [61] † Ctenochonetes tenuicostata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    25757012004
    [62] † Archaeochonetes primigenius
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    14505007004


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M23367' (62 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] † Billingsella perfecta
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    35151015004
    [2] † Strophomena planumbona
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    4585807004
    [3] † Actinomena orta
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    3636303004
    [4] † Furcitella plicata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    21424206004
    [5] † Bekkerina dorsata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    5595905004
    [6] † Oepikina septata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    3595907004
    [7] † Colaptomena leptostrophoidea
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    65151012004
    [8] † Kjerulfina trigonalis
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    104747012004
    [9] † Rafinesquina alternata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    5555509004
    [10] † Kjaerina poljensis
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    10525207004
    [11] † Leptaena richmondensis
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    6575706004
    [12] † Kiaeromena estonensis
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    15464608004
    [13] † Glyptomena sculpturata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    94949011004
    [14] † Platymena plana
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    7565606004
    [15] † Christiania subquadrata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    26373706004
    [16] † Leptaenoidea rugata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    6575706004
    [17] † Leptaenisca concava
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    7545408004
    [18] † Amphistrophia striata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    7565606004
    [19] † Mesodouvillina subinterstrialis
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    7565606004
    [20] † Maoristrophia neozelanica
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    18454506004
    [21] † Douvillina dutertrei
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    75151011004
    [22] † Protodouvillina inaequistriata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    16474706004
    [23] † Douvillinella filifer
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    6575706004
    [24] † Dicoelostrophia punctatum
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    13505006004
    [25] † Leptodontella caudata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    14484807004
    [26] † Leptostrophia magniventra
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    11505008004
    [27] † Leptostrophia beckii
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    13494907004
    [28] † Brachyprion philomela
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    11505008004
    [29] † Brachyprion semiglobosa
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    6575706004
    [30] † Strophodonta demissa
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    7555507004
    [31] † Parapholidostrophia harperi
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    7555507004
    [32] † Shaleria ornatella
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    11494909004
    [33] † Eostrophonella eothen
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    164040013004
    [34] † Plectambonites planissimus
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    74848014004
    [35] † Isophragma ricevillense
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    25151016004
    [36] † Tafia planoconvexa
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    124242015004
    [37] † Ahtiella lirata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    104545014004
    [38] † Leptella nevadensis
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    173232020004
    [39] † Bimuria superba
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    65252011004
    [40] † Sowerbyites hami
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    15656012004
    [41] † Leptellina? pulchra
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    10525207004
    [42] † Leptelloidea leptelloides
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    05656013004
    [43] † Palaeostrophomena concava
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    1616008004
    [44] † Alwynella ildjemensis
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    1606008004
    [45] † Railtonella scanloni
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    134545011004
    [46] † Leptestia musculosa
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    7535309004
    [47] † Sampo hiiuensis
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    3606006004
    [48] † Xenambonites undosus
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    4565609004
    [49] † Metambonites meritus
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    24404005004
    [50] † Aegiromena aquila
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    144545010004
    [51] † Epelidoaegiria chilidifera
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    13474709004
    [52] † Aegiria norvegica
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    75252010004
    [53] † Hesperomena leptellinoidea
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    24404005004
    [54] † Anoptambonites grayae
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    6565607004
    [55] † Sowerbyella punctostriata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    7595903004
    [56] † Eochonetes clarksvillensis
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    16474706004
    [57] † Plectodonta mariae
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    21434305004
    [58] † Ptychoglyptus virginiensis
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    9535307004
    [59] † Strophochonetes cingulatus
    Last Modified in 06/03/15
    25363608004
    [60] † Borealinetes comestus
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    7535309004
    [61] † Ctenochonetes tenuicostata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    25555012004
    [62] † Archaeochonetes primigenius
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    14484807004


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M23368' (64 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] † Billingsella perfecta
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    35151015004
    [2] † Strophomena planumbona
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    4585807004
    [3] † Actinomena orta
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    3636303004
    [4] † Furcitella plicata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    21424206004
    [5] † Bekkerina dorsata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    5595905004
    [6] † Oepikina septata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    3595907004
    [7] † Foliomena folium
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    223737010004
    [8] † Colaptomena leptostrophoidea
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    65151012004
    [9] † Kjerulfina trigonalis
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    104747012004
    [10] † Rafinesquina alternata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    5555509004
    [11] † Kjaerina poljensis
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    10525207004
    [12] † Leptaena richmondensis
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    6575706004
    [13] † Kiaeromena estonensis
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    15464608004
    [14] † Glyptomena sculpturata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    94949011004
    [15] † Platymena plana
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    7565606004
    [16] † Christiania subquadrata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    26373706004
    [17] † Leptaenoidea rugata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    6575706004
    [18] † Leptaenisca concava
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    7545408004
    [19] † Amphistrophia striata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    7565606004
    [20] † Mesodouvillina subinterstrialis
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    7565606004
    [21] † Maoristrophia neozelanica
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    18454506004
    [22] † Douvillina dutertrei
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    75151011004
    [23] † Protodouvillina inaequistriata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    16474706004
    [24] † Douvillinella filifer
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    6575706004
    [25] † Dicoelostrophia punctatum
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    13505006004
    [26] † Leptodontella caudata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    14484807004
    [27] † Leptostrophia magniventra
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    11505008004
    [28] † Leptostrophia beckii
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    13494907004
    [29] † Brachyprion philomela
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    11505008004
    [30] † Brachyprion semiglobosa
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    6575706004
    [31] † Strophodonta demissa
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    7555507004
    [32] † Parapholidostrophia harperi
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    7555507004
    [33] † Shaleria ornatella
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    11494909004
    [34] † Eostrophonella eothen
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    164040013004
    [35] † Plectambonites planissimus
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    74848014004
    [36] † Isophragma ricevillense
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    25151016004
    [37] † Tafia planoconvexa
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    124242015004
    [38] † Ahtiella lirata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    104545014004
    [39] † Leptella nevadensis
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    173232020004
    [40] † Bimuria superba
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    65252011004
    [41] † Sowerbyites hami
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    15656012004
    [42] † Leptellina? pulchra
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    10525207004
    [43] † Leptelloidea leptelloides
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    05656013004
    [44] † Palaeostrophomena concava
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    1616008004
    [45] † Grorudia grorudi
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    27343408004
    [46] † Alwynella ildjemensis
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    1606008004
    [47] † Railtonella scanloni
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    134545011004
    [48] † Leptestia musculosa
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    7535309004
    [49] † Sampo hiiuensis
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    3606006004
    [50] † Xenambonites undosus
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    4565609004
    [51] † Metambonites meritus
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    24404005004
    [52] † Aegiromena aquila
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    144545010004
    [53] † Epelidoaegiria chilidifera
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    13474709004
    [54] † Aegiria norvegica
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    75252010004
    [55] † Hesperomena leptellinoidea
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    24404005004
    [56] † Anoptambonites grayae
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    6565607004
    [57] † Sowerbyella punctostriata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    7595903004
    [58] † Eochonetes clarksvillensis
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    16474706004
    [59] † Plectodonta mariae
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    21434305004
    [60] † Ptychoglyptus virginiensis
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    9535307004
    [61] † Strophochonetes cingulatus
    Last Modified in 06/03/15
    25363608004
    [62] † Borealinetes comestus
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    7535309004
    [63] † Ctenochonetes tenuicostata
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    25555012004
    [64] † Archaeochonetes primigenius
    Last Modified in 07/27/15
    14484807004


    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views15484
    Project overview2040
    Matrix views1763Matrix landing page (1270 views); Strophomenide phylogeny (172 views); Strophomenide phylogeny with microstructure characters included (123 views); Strophomenide phylogeny including Grorudia and Foliomena (198 views);
    Media views3028Media search (2588 views); M382061 (440 views);
    Specimen list1281
    Taxon list6817
    Bibliography554
    Documents list1




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project158
    Project downloads150
    Matrix downloads8Strophomenide phylogeny with microstructure characters included (8 downloads);