Project 108: M. A. O'Leary, J. Gatesy. 2007. Impact of increased character sampling on the phylogeny of Cetartiodactyla (Mammalia): combined analysis including fossils. Cladistics. 24 (4):397-442.
Specimen: Potamochoerus porcus (AMNH/Mammalogy:238330)

Abstract

The phylogenetic position of Cetacea (whales, dolphins and porpoises) is an important exemplar problem for combined data parsimony analyses because the clade is ancient and includes many well-known and relatively complete fossil species. We combined molecular and morphological data for 71 terminal taxa (43 extinct/28 extant) to test where Cetacea fits within Cetartiodactyla, and where various fossil hoofed mammals (e.g., entelodonts, anthracotheriids, and mesonychians) are positioned. The taxon sample included representatives of most living families of cetaceans, artiodactylans, and perissodactylans, and almost 50% of wholly extinct families of artiodactylans. We scored 635 phenotypic characters (osteology, dentition, soft tissue, behavior), approximately three times the number of characters in the last major analysis of this clade, and combined these with >40,000 molecular characters, including new data from ten genes. The combined analysis supported a topology consistent with the majority of recently published molecular studies. In all most parsimonious trees: Cetacea was the extant sister taxon of Hippopotamidae, followed successively by Ruminantia, Suina and Camelidae. Several extinct taxa were phylogenetically unstable, upsetting resolution of the strict consensus and limiting branch support, but the positions of several key fossils were consistently resolved. The wholly extinct Mesonychia was more closely related to Cetacea than was any artiodactylan. Anthracotheriids were paraphyletic, and, with the exception of one species, were more closely related to Hippopotamidae than to any other living taxon. Taxa classified as triisodontids, entelodonts and helohyids also clustered on the stem lineage of Hippopotamidae. The character partition that could be scored for the fossil taxa (osteological and dental characters) included more informative characters than most molecular partitions in our analysis, and had the fewest missing data by a large margin. The osteological-dental data alone, however, did not support inclusion of cetaceans within crown Artiodactyla. In the context of our combined analysis, recently discovered ankle bones from early fossil whales broadly reinforced the monophyly of Cetartiodactyla but provided no particular evidence of derived similarities between hippopotamids and fossil cetaceans that were not shared with other artiodactylans.



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Project DOI: 10.7934/P108, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P108
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 4 Documents
  • 71 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 635 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 2 MB

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 29988
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 635
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 1392
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:635/0
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MorphoBank Project 108

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    Maureen O'Leary
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 05/16/11
    7100063500029988
    (26699, 0, 3289)
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    MorphoBank Curator
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    Last logged in 08/07/14
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    John Gatesy
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    0000
    Seth Kaufman
    Full membership
    Last logged in 05/15/11
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    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M353' (71 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
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    [1] Bos taurus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    21584583031004
    [2] Ovis aries
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    28572570037004
    [3] Odocoileus virginianus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    44557557034004
    [4] Cervus elaphus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    63549549023004
    [5] Giraffa camelopardalis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    20582579036004
    [6] Antilocapra americana
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    68533533034004
    [7] Moschus moschiferus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    75520517043004
    [8] Tragulus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    40554552043004
    [9] Tursiops truncatus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    393683680228004
    [10] Monodon monoceros
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1593353340142004
    [11] Inia geoffrensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1583373360141004
    [12] Pontoporia blainvillei
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1063093080221004
    [13] Kogia breviceps
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1503333330152004
    [14] Ziphius cavirostris
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1453533510139004
    [15] Balaenoptera acutorostrata
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1583273260151004
    [16] Hippopotamus amphibius
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    30561558047004
    [17] Choeropsis liberiensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    42546545048004
    [18] Sus scrofa
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    23564561051004
    [19] Babyrousa babyrussa
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    68513512055004
    [20] Potamochoerus porcus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    71511509055004
    [21] Hylochoerus meinertzhageni
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    68508504063004
    [22] Tayassu tajacu
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    61528526048004
    [23] Camelus dromedarius
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    36559558041004
    [24] Lama glama
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    106494494035004
    [25] Dicerorhinus sumatrensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    154421421060004
    [26] Tapirus terrestris
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    55525524056004
    [27] Equus caballus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    14576576045004
    [28] Orycteropus afer
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    78467466091004
    [29] Hyopsodus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    167431430038004
    [30] Hyracotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    220379378037004
    [31] Artiocetus clavis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    312278278045004
    [32] Rodhocetus balochistanensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    5417777017004
    [33] Dorudon atrox
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    151417417067004
    [34] Basilosaurus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    241351351043004
    [35] Sinonyx jiashanensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    178409408049004
    [36] Mesonyx obtusidens
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    195384384056004
    [37] Dissacus praenuntius
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    332260260043004
    [38] Dissacus sp.
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    243372370022004
    [39] Harpagolestes orientalis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    406187187042004
    [40] Harpagolestes uintensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    319275275041004
    [41] Hapalodectes hetangensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    334282282019004
    [42] Helohyus plicodon
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    424195192019004
    [43] Pakicetidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    283311310042004
    [44] Ambulocetus natans
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    487126126022004
    [45] Gobiohyus orientalis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    376249249010004
    [46] Leptomeryx
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    102504502031004
    [47] Poebrotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    77518518040004
    [48] Agriochoerus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    98503498039004
    [49] Merycoidodon sp.
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    85514512038004
    [50] Diacodexis pakistanensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    182409409044004
    [51] Diacodexis sp.
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    373244242020004
    [52] Perchoerus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    184420417034004
    [53] Archaeotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    91507505039004
    [54] Elomeryx
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    172437434029004
    [55] Microbunodon minimum
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    352260258025004
    [56] Merycopotamus dissimilis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    348273272015004
    [57] Xenohyus venitor
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    51311711705004
    [58] Cainotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    99504504032004
    [59] Phenacodus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    204404401030004
    [60] Protungulatum
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    490136135010004
    [61] Anthracokeryx ulnifer
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    369254254012004
    [62] Libycosaurus petrocchii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    52011311302004
    [63] Siamotherium krabiense
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    561717103004
    [64] Brachyhyops wyomingensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    437171171027004
    [65] Achaenodon uintensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    315293293027004
    [66] Andrewsarchus mongoliensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    467143143025004
    [67] Pachyaena ossifraga
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    39524024000004
    [68] Protoceras celer
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    25538138000004
    [69] Indohyus indirae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    536999900004
    [70] Eoconodon heilprinianus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    38624924900004
    [71] Bothriogenys
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    27136636400004


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    Total downloads from project518
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