Project 1102: G. Billet, C. De Muizon. 2013. External and Internal Anatomy of a Petrosal from the Late Paleocene of Itaboraí, Brazil, Referred to Notoungulata (Placentalia). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 33 (2):455-469.
Specimen: † Notoungulata (MNHN-F:BRD 23)

Abstract

We describe the earliest petrosal bone referred to the South American endemic Notoungulata, from the late Paleocene-early Eocene Beds of Itaboraí, which provides a critical basis for assessing their enigmatic origins. As indicated by our phylogenetic analysis, the fossil belongs to a taxon most likely close to the ancestral root of the Notoungulata. We describe the entire external anatomy of this isolated ear bone and also investigate the bony labyrinth of the inner ear through computed tomographic scan reconstruction. Within Notoungulata, the specimen retains a number of features considered plesiomorphic, such as a narrow medial flange on the tympanic surface, the presence of a petromastoid canal, and a rather deep fossa subarcuata. We also present a survey of the petrosal anatomy of early diverging notoungulates compared with other members of Eutheria. Features regarded as plesiomorphic in Notoungulata comprise a low stapedial ratio, a cavity for the trigeminal ganglion, a secondary crus commune, a ramus superior of stapedial artery (although reduced) and arteria diploëtica magna, and the tegmen tympani pierced by a canal. Derived features include notably a laterally located tensor tympani fossa, a bean-shaped promontorium and adjoining flattened medial flange, and a stapedial fossa poorly separated from the postpromontorial tympanic sinus. A number of derived notoungulate characters are interestingly shared with the extant hyrax Procavia. Further investigation of this anatomical region in other eutherians is required in order to fully exploit the phylogenetic potential of our new observations. This is especially needed for other groups of South American endemic ungulates possibly related to Notoungulata.


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Article DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02724634.2013.722153

Project DOI: 10.7934/P1102, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P1102
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 1 Document
  • 62 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 143 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 249.77k

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 6317
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 143
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 301
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:143/0
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MorphoBank Project 1102

    Authors' Institutions

    • Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris (Natural History Museum, Paris)

    • Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn (University of Bonn)



    Members

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    Last logged in 02/27/14
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    Maureen Admin
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    Guillaume Billet
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    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M2418' (61 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
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    [1] † Leptictis
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    6108108029003
    [2] † Phenacodus
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    5102102036003
    [3] † Meniscotherium
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    3105105035003
    [4] † Protolipterna
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    1002323020003
    [5] † Proterotherium
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    99090044003
    [6] † Trigonostylops
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    199292032003
    [7] † Astrapotherium
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    89796039003
    [8] † Pyrotherium
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    407979024003
    [9] † Notostylops
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    413513504003
    [10] † Henricosbornia
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    101404002003
    [11] † Simpsonotus
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    2511611602003
    [12] † Pleurostylodon
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    1512712602003
    [13] † Thomashuxleya
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    4110010002003
    [14] † Pampahippus
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    82595902003
    [15] † Periphragnis
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    913313202003
    [16] † Ryphodon
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    52888803003
    [17] † Puelia
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    51919101003
    [18] † Leontinia
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    1612412403003
    [19] † Colpodon
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    2411611603003
    [20] † Ancylocoelus
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    42979704003
    [21] † Scarittia
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    3410710702003
    [22] † Homalodotherium
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    1512512503003
    [23] † Asmodeus
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    65757503003
    [24] † Rhynchippus
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    1312912901003
    [25] † Eurygenium
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    57858501003
    [26] † Pascualihippus
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    60838201003
    [27] † Eomorphippus
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    73716901003
    [28] † Morphippus
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    3211011001003
    [29] † Argyrohippus
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    3311010901003
    [30] † Nesodon
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    1013113003003
    [31] † Adinotherium
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    813313203003
    [32] † Hoffstetterius
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    38989807003
    [33] † Ponanskytherium
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    3510010008003
    [34] † Toxodon
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    37989808003
    [35] † Colbertia
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    2911411301003
    [36] † Oldfieldthomasia
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    1612512502003
    [37] † Campanorco
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    47949402003
    [38] † Acropithecus
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    70717102003
    [39] † Ultrapithecus
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    98434302003
    [40] † Notopithecus
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    913013004003
    [41] † Archaeophylus
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    122181803003
    [42] † Cochilius
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    43979703003
    [43] † Plagiarthrus
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    51878705003
    [44] † Protypotherium
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    1912011905003
    [45] † Miocochilius
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    49898905003
    [46] † Interatherium
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    3310410406003
    [47] † Federicoanaya
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    3810010005003
    [48] † Trachytherus
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    1312812802003
    [49] † Plesiotypotherium
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    26104104013003
    [50] † Mesotherium
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    30100100013003
    [51] † Eohyrax
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    90515102003
    [52] † Pseudhyrax
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    74676702003
    [53] † Archaeotypotherium
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    61808002003
    [54] † Archaeohyrax
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    1113113002003
    [55] † Prohegetotherium
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    55868602003
    [56] † Hegetotherium
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    2911311202003
    [57] † Prosotherium
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    538080010003
    [58] † Paedotherium
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    409090013003
    [59] † MNHN-F-BRD 23
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    1367700003
    [60] † Zalambdalestes
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    2103103038003
    [61] † Macrauchenia
    Last Modified in 02/06/14
    139898032003


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    Bibliography1054
    Documents list1794




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