Project 1126: C. Foth, H. Tischlinger, O. W. M. Rauhut. 2014. New specimen of Archaeopteryx provides insights into the evolution of pennaceous feathers. Nature. 511:79-82.
Specimen: † Archaeopteryx (BSPG:VnwK 02923)
View: lateral

Abstract

Discoveries of bird-like theropod dinosaurs and basal avialans in the past decades have helped to put the iconic ‘Urvogel’ Archaeopteryx into context and have yielded important new data on the origin and early evolution of feathers. However, the biological context under which pennaceous feathers evolved is still debated. Here we describe a new specimen of Archaeopteryx with extensive feather preservation, not only on the wings and tail, but also the body and legs. The new specimen shows that the entire body was covered in pennaceous feathers and the hindlimbs had long, symmetrical feathers along the tibiotarsus, but short feathers on the tarsometatarsus. Furthermore, the wing plumage demonstrates that several recent interpretations are problematic. An analysis of the phylogenetic distribution of pennaceous feathers on the tail, hindlimb and arms of advanced maniraptorans and basal avialans strongly indicates that these structures evolved in a functional context other than flight, most probably in relation to display as suggested by some previous studies. Pennaceous feathers thus represented an exaptation and were later, in several lineages and following different patterns, recruited for aerodynamic functions. This indicates that the origin of flight in avialans was more complex then previously thought and might have involved several convergent achievements of aerial abilities.


Read the article »

Article DOI: 10.1038/nature13467

Project DOI: 10.7934/P1126, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P1126
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 1 Document
  • 132 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 560 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 3.53M

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 29832
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 560
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 1278
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:494/66
Currently Viewing:
MorphoBank Project 1126

    Authors' Institutions

    • Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen

    • Bayerische Staatssammlung fuer Palaeontologie und Geologie



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    Christian Foth
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 07/11/14
    1110000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    Maureen Admin
    Full membership
    Last logged in 01/21/20
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    MorphoBank Curator
    Full membership
    Last logged in Never
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    Oliver Rauhut
    Full membership
    Last logged in 06/05/14
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M26929' (132 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] † Allosaurus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    4851551200004
    [2] † Sinraptor
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    16439639600004
    [3] † Dilong
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    16339739700004
    [4] † Eotyrannus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    42613413400004
    [5] † Tyrannosaurus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    6649549400004
    [6] † Gorgosaurus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    6949149100004
    [7] † Tanycolagreus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    39916116100004
    [8] † Coelurus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    38717417300004
    [9] † Ornitholestes
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    20635535400004
    [10] † Huaxiagnathus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    26629529400004
    [11] † Sinosauropteryx
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    24231931800004
    [12] † Deinocheirus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    506545400004
    [13] † Harpymimus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    25930230100004
    [14] † Pelecanimimus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    39017017000004
    [15] † Shenzhousaurus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    36619419400004
    [16] † Archaeornithomimus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    31924324100004
    [17] † Garudimimus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    25830230200004
    [18] † Anserimimus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    44611411400004
    [19] † Ornithomimus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    14641541400004
    [20] † Struthiomimus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    13442742600004
    [21] † Gallimimus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    9846546200004
    [22] † Falcarius
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    34721321300004
    [23] † Beipiaosaurus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    476848400004
    [24] † Alxasaurus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    38917217100004
    [25] † Nothronychus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    476848400004
    [26] † Erliansaurus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    492686800004
    [27] † Nanshiungosaurus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    522383800004
    [28] † Neimongosaurus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    44111911900004
    [29] † Segnosaurus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    41114914900004
    [30] † Erlikosaurus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    33722322300004
    [31] † Therizinosaurus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    517434300004
    [32] † Protarchaeopteryx
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    42113913900004
    [33] † Elmisaurus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    515454500004
    [34] † Rinchenia
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    42014014000004
    [35] † Khaan
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    17638538400004
    [36] † Citipati
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    6549749500004
    [37] † Ingenia
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    21934334100004
    [38] † Heyuannia
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    41414614600004
    [39] † Byronosaurus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    43312812700004
    [40] † Sinornithoides
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    26130029900004
    [41] † IGM100/44
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    496646400004
    [42] † Troodon
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    34621421400004
    [43] † Saurornithoides
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    35620420400004
    [44] † Zanabazar
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    37918218100004
    [45] † Buitreraptor
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    26229929800004
    [46] † Austroraptor
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    44511611500004
    [47] † Rahonavis
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    37418718600004
    [48] † Bambiraptor
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    8847247200004
    [49] † Sinornithosaurus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    21535134500004
    [50] † Microraptor
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    22034334000004
    [51] † Adasaurus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    31025225000004
    [52] † Velociraptor
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    4052252000004
    [53] † Saurornitholestes
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    38117917900004
    [54] † Deinonychus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    11544644500004
    [55] † Achillobator
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    39716316300004
    [56] † Dromaeosaurus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    39216816800004
    [57] † Utahraptor
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    43612412400004
    [58] † Atrociraptor
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    512484800004
    [59] † Epidexipteryx
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    37318918700004
    [60] † Jeholornis
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    20835235200004
    [61] † Sapeornis
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    18238037800004
    [62] † Confuciusornis
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    14941541100004
    [63] † Yanornis
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    27629028400004
    [64] † Hagryphus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    525353500004
    [65] † Microvenator
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    45710310300004
    [66] † Avimimus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    32024024000004
    [67] † Oviraptor
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    32423623600004
    [68] † Conchoraptor
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    25930130100004
    [69] † Chirostenotes
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    34621421400004
    [70] † Incisivosaurus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    37718318300004
    [71] † Similicaudipteryx
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    31924124100004
    [72] † Caudipteryx
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    21534534500004
    [73] † Xiaotingia
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    29926126100004
    [74] † Sinovenator
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    20335835700004
    [75] † Archaeopteryx
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    7449048600004
    [76] † Mei
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    17838538200004
    [77] † Haplocheirus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    22433633600004
    [78] † Patagonykus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    43212812800004
    [79] † Mononykus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    32723423300004
    [80] † Shuvuuia
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    13642742400004
    [81] † Alvarezsaurus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    465959500004
    [82] † IGM100-1015
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    45110910900004
    [83] † Tianyuraptor
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    34821321200004
    [84] † Compsognathus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    24531631500004
    [85] † Sinusonasus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    465959500004
    [86] † Parvicursor
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    502585800004
    [87] † Sinornithomimus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    30125925900004
    [88] † Guanlong
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    30425625600004
    [89] † Daspletosaurus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    18537537500004
    [90] † Graciliraptor
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    471908900004
    [91] † Balaur
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    35920120100004
    [92] † Mahakala
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    35920320100004
    [93] † Apsaravis
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    32823623200004
    [94] † Yixianornis
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    25031531000004
    [95] † Yixianosaurus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    489717100004
    [96] † Pedopenna
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    530303000004
    [97] † Tsaagan
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    31025125000004
    [98] † Hesperonychus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    544161600004
    [99] † Pyroraptor
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    544161600004
    [100] † Albinykus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    518424200004
    [101] † Proceratosaurus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    484767600004
    [102] † Xixiasaurus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    503575700004
    [103] † IGM100/1126
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    32923223100004
    [104] † IGM100/1323
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    41714314300004
    [105] † Tarbosaurus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    19636636400004
    [106] † Albertosaurus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    22833233200004
    [107] † Jixiangornis
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    30425625600004
    [108] † Neuquenornis
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    45910310100004
    [109] † Patagopteryx
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    41215414800004
    [110] † Cathayornis
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    37918618100004
    [111] † Concornis
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    44012412000004
    [112] † Gobipteryx
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    464989600004
    [113] † Vorona
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    518424200004
    [114] † Songlingornis
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    523393700004
    [115] † Pengornis
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    39017717000004
    [116] † Hesperornis
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    30825225200004
    [117] † Baptornis
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    480838000004
    [118] † Ichthyornis
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    28727827300004
    [119] † Iaceornis
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    473878700004
    [120] † Limenavis
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    526363400004
    [121] † Crypturellus
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    18038138000004
    [122] † Lithornis
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    27429328600004
    [123] Gallus
    Last Modified in 09/11/20
    17338938700004
    [124] Crax
    Last Modified in 09/11/20
    17138938900004
    [125] Anas
    Last Modified in 09/11/20
    18937337100004
    [126] Chauna
    Last Modified in 09/11/20
    17338838700004
    [127] † Hongshanornis
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    39217016800004
    [128] † Liaoningornis
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    507535300004
    [129] † Unenlagia
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    39116916900004
    [130] † Anchiornis
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    22333833700004
    [131] † Jinfengopteryx
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    38417617600004
    [132] † Eosinopteryx
    Last Modified in 09/14/20
    42613413400004


    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views32483
    Project overview3313
    Matrix views2487Matrix landing page (2226 views); (254 views); Matrix from Foth et al 2014 - modified by Morphobank curators to make it parse correctly - Please found the original matrix uploaded by authors in the "documents" section (7 views);
    Media views4749Media search (4092 views); M332978 (1 view); M332979 (656 views);
    Specimen list2284
    Taxon list19640
    Documents list5
    Views for media list2
    Bibliography3




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project526
    Matrix downloads46 (46 downloads);
    Project downloads471
    Media downloads8M332979 (8 downloads);
    Document downloads1Original nexus file submited by the authors (1 download);