Project 1135: L. A. Tsuji, C. A. Sidor, J. S. Steyer, R. M. H. Smith, N. J. Tabor, O. Ide. 2013. The vertebrate fauna of the Upper Permian of Niger—VII. Cranial anatomy and relationships of Bunostegos akokanensis (Pareiasauria). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 33 (4):747-763.
Specimen: † Bunostegos (MNN:MOR86)
View: lateral

Abstract

We describe newly recovered cranial material of Bunostegos akokanensis, a pareiasaurian reptile known from the Upper Permian Moradi Formation of northern Niger. Bunostegos is highly autapomorphic, with diagnostic cranial features including two or three hemispherical bosses located above and between the external nares; laterally projecting supraorbital ‘horn’ formed by an enlarged postfrontal; large foramen present on ventral surface of postfrontal; and hemispherical supratemporal boss located at posterolateral corner of skull roof. We addressed the phylogenetic position of Bunostegos by incorporating it into a cladistic analysis of 29 parareptilian taxa (including all 21 currently valid pareiasaurs) and 127 cranial and postcranial characters. The results of this analysis place Bunostegos as more derived than middle Permian forms such as Bradysaurus and as the sister taxon to the clade including Deltavjatia plus Velosauria. Certain characters, such as the pattern of cranial ornamentation and the size and placement of the tabulars, appear to be more similar to more derived pareiasaurs such as Elginia from Scotland and Arganaceras from Morocco, but the most parsimonious tree topology indicates that these features were evolved independently in the Nigerien form. The lack of both dicynodont herbivores and Glossopteris, combined with the presence of a giant herbivorous captorhinid, indicates a markedly different community structure in the Permian of Niger compared with those for contemporaneous southern Pangean basins (i.e., Karoo, Luangwa, Ruhuhu). The endemic tetrapod fauna of Niger supports the theory that central Pangea was biogeographically isolated from the rest of the supercontinent by desert-like conditions during Late Permian times.


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Article DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02724634.2013.739537

Project DOI: 10.7934/P1135, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P1135
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 1 Document
  • 29 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 127 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 3.98M

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 2219
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 127
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 287
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:127/0
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MorphoBank Project 1135

    This research
    supported by

    Authors' Institutions

    • Iziko South African Museum, Cape Town

    • Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris (Natural History Museum, Paris)

    • University of Washington

    • Southern Methodist University

    • Université Abdou Moumouni (formerly University of Niamey)



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    MorphoBank Curator
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 08/06/14
    2911127002219
    (2219, 0, 0)
    000
    Maureen Admin
    Full membership
    Last logged in 01/21/20
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    Linda Tsuji
    Full membership
    Last logged in 05/20/14
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M2496' (29 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] † Millerettidae
    Last Modified in 05/23/14
    1511611200003
    [2] † Owenetta
    Last Modified in 05/23/14
    2410310300003
    [3] † Bashkyroleter bashkyricus
    Last Modified in 05/23/14
    77505000003
    [4] † Bashkyroleter mesensis
    Last Modified in 05/23/14
    73555400003
    [5] † Rhipaeosaurus
    Last Modified in 05/23/14
    85424200003
    [6] † Nycteroleter
    Last Modified in 05/23/14
    67606000003
    [7] † Emeroleter
    Last Modified in 05/23/14
    47808000003
    [8] † Macroleter poezicus
    Last Modified in 05/23/14
    2610110100003
    [9] † Bradysaurus baini
    Last Modified in 05/23/14
    911811800003
    [10] † Bradysaurus seeleyi
    Last Modified in 05/23/14
    312412400003
    [11] † Nochelesaurus
    Last Modified in 05/23/14
    37909000003
    [12] † Embrithosaurus
    Last Modified in 05/23/14
    512212200003
    [13] † Deltavjatia
    Last Modified in 05/23/14
    1011711700003
    [14] † Shansisaurus
    Last Modified in 05/23/14
    109181800003
    [15] † Shihtienfenia
    Last Modified in 05/23/14
    105222200003
    [16] † Pareiasuchus peringueyi
    Last Modified in 05/23/14
    1111611600003
    [17] † Pareiasuchus nasicornis
    Last Modified in 05/23/14
    2010710700003
    [18] † Pareiasaurus
    Last Modified in 05/23/14
    1910810800003
    [19] † Scutosaurus
    Last Modified in 05/23/14
    412312300003
    [20] † Sanchuansaurus
    Last Modified in 05/23/14
    116111100003
    [21] † Parasaurus
    Last Modified in 05/23/14
    88393900003
    [22] † Elginia
    Last Modified in 05/23/14
    48797900003
    [23] † Provelosaurus
    Last Modified in 05/23/14
    60676700003
    [24] † Anthodon
    Last Modified in 05/23/14
    2310410400003
    [25] † Pumiliopareia
    Last Modified in 05/23/14
    63646400003
    [26] † Nanoparia
    Last Modified in 05/23/14
    72555500003
    [27] † Arganaceras
    Last Modified in 05/23/14
    72555500003
    [28] † Obirkovia
    Last Modified in 05/23/14
    1234400003
    [29] † Bunostegos
    Last Modified in 05/23/14
    58696500003


    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views24080
    Project overview3149
    Matrix views2326Matrix landing page (2107 views); Tsuji et al Matrix (219 views);
    Media views4610Media search (4072 views); M326046 (538 views);
    Taxon list8965
    Documents list1769
    Specimen list2035
    Views for media list1181
    Bibliography45




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project183
    Media downloads1M326046 (1 download);
    Project downloads178
    Matrix downloads4Tsuji et al Matrix (4 downloads);