Project 1168: J. Mitchell, P. M. Sander. 2014. The three-front model: a developmental explanation of long bone diaphyseal histology of Sauropoda. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 112 (4):765-781.
Specimen: † Apatosaurus (BYU: 681-17014)


The bone histology of non-avian dinosaurs is enlightening for understanding many aspects of the growth and development of these long-extinct animals. The rate of bone apposition and remodelling in the shaft of long bones appears to be accelerated in some groups and decelerated in others. We propose a developmental model to illustrate these fundamental aspects of long bone diaphyseal histology at different growth stages. We developed the model based on an ontogenetic series of long bones of the sauropod dinosaur Apatosaurus. The model describes the histology and microanatomy based on three fronts that move radially: the apposition front, the Haversian substitution front, and the resorption front. When applied to additional sauropod dinosaurs, differences and similarities observed in the microstructure of the different taxa could be explained with the model. The benefit of this model is that it is not limited to Sauropoda but appears to be applicable to a broad range of terrestrial amniote long bones and thus could provide unique insights into life history and evolutionary patterns of bone development. © 2014 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2014, 112, 765–781.

Read the article »

Article DOI: doi/10.1111/bij.12324/abstract

Project DOI: 10.7934/P1168,
This project contains
  • 31 Media
  • 8 Folios
  • 8 Taxa
  • 31 Specimens
Total size of project's media files: 349 MB

Download Project SDD File
Currently Viewing:
MorphoBank Project 1168


    member name taxa specimens media
    Jessica Mitchell
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 08/02/14
    Seth Kaufman
    Full membership
    Last logged in 05/12/14
    Martin Sander
    Full membership
    Last logged in Never

    Project has no matrices defined.

    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views48747
    Project overview3502
    Specimen list14370
    Folio views3602Folio list (933 views); Diplodocid indet Thin Sections (333 views); Europasaurus Thin Sections (341 views); Magyarosaurus Thin Sections (356 views); Ampelosaurus Thin Sections (342 views); Cervus thin section (285 views); Apatosaurus Thin Sections (332 views); Giraffatitan Thin Sections (343 views); Camarasaurus Thin Sections (337 views);
    Media views19801Media search (4156 views); M332057 (504 views); M332054 (480 views); M332068 (508 views); M332076 (493 views); M332061 (523 views); M332063 (513 views); M331557 (464 views); M332066 (478 views); M332074 (490 views); M332062 (625 views); M332069 (470 views); M329519 (522 views); M332059 (493 views); M332071 (526 views); M332058 (497 views); M332065 (536 views); M329524 (487 views); M332060 (553 views); M331551 (451 views); M332055 (487 views); M332067 (478 views); M332075 (478 views); M332079 (514 views); M329525 (484 views); M332077 (552 views); M332078 (514 views); M332073 (487 views); M332072 (478 views); M332251 (468 views); M332070 (635 views); M332056 (457 views);
    Taxon list5201

    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project277
    Media downloads10M329519 (3 downloads); M329524 (1 download); M329525 (4 downloads); M332059 (1 download); M332062 (1 download);
    Project downloads267