Project 1210: D. A. Janies, J. R. Voight, M. Daly. 2011. Echinoderm phylogeny including Xyloplax, a progenetic asteroid. Systematic Biology. 60 (4):420-438.
Specimen: Xyloplax janetae (unvouchered)
View: dorsal

Abstract

Reconstruction of the phylogeny of the five extant classes of the phylum Echinodermata has proven difficult. Results concerning higher-level taxonomic relationships among echinoderms are sensitive to the choice of analytical parameters and methods. Moreover, the proposal of a putative sixth class based on a small enigmatic disc-shaped echinoderm, Xyloplax, from the deep seas of the Bahamas and New Zealand in the 1980s further complicated the problem. Although clearly an echinoderm, Xyloplax did not have clear affinity among known groups. Using molecular sequence and developmental data from recently collected Xyloplax adults and embryos, we show that rather than representing an ancient distinct lineage as implied by its status as a class, Xyloplax is simply a starfish that is closely related to the asteroid family Pterasteridae. Many members of the Pterasteridae and all Xyloplax inhabit deep or polar seas and brood young. Brooding pterasterids and Xyloplax hold their young in specialized adult chambers until the young reach an advanced juvenile stage after which they are released as free-living individuals. We hypothesize that the unique morphology of Xyloplax evolved via progenesis—the truncation of somatic growth at a juvenile body plan but with gonadal growth to maturity. Although the overall phylogeny of extant echinoderms remains sensitive to the choice of analytical methods, the placement of Xyloplax as sister to pterasterid asteroids is unequivocal. Based on this, we argue that the proposed class and infraclass status of Xyloplax should be suppressed.


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Article DOI: 10.1093/sysbio/syr044

Project DOI: 10.7934/P1210, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P1210
This project containsMatrices
  • 59 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 86 Taxa
  • 54 Specimens
  • 36 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 53 MB

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 2957
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 36
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 73
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:36/0
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MorphoBank Project 1210

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    Jo Wolfe
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 03/28/15
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    Daniel Janies
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    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M2733' (86 Taxa)

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    [1] Ciona intestinalis
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    315500002
    [2] Acodontaster conspicuus
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [3] Allostichaster sp
    Last Modified in 06/11/14
    0363600002
    [4] Amblypneustes ovum
    Last Modified in 06/11/14
    0363600002
    [5] Amphipholis squamata
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [6] Arbacia lixula
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [7] Arbacia punctulata
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [8] Archaster typicus
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    [9] Asterias forbesi
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [10] Asterina miniata
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [11] Asteronyx sp
    Last Modified in 06/11/14
    0363600002
    [12] Astropecten articulatus
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [13] Astropecten polyacanthus
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
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    [14] Brisingaster robillardi
    Last Modified in 06/11/14
    0363600002
    [15] Caymanostella sp
    Last Modified in 06/11/14
    0363600002
    [16] Cephalodiscus gracilis
    Last Modified in 06/11/14
    279900002
    [17] Chiridota rotifera
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
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    [18] Coscinasterias muricata
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    [19] Crossaster papposus
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
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    [20] Cucumaria miniata
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
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    [21] Cucumaria salma
    Last Modified in 06/11/14
    0363600002
    [22] Dermasterias imbricata
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
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    [23] Diplasterias brucei
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [24] Diplodontias miliaris
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
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    [25] Echinaster sentus
    Last Modified in 06/11/14
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    [26] Echinocardium cordatum
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
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    [27] Echinuses culentus
    Last Modified in 06/11/14
    0363600002
    [28] Encope aberrans
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [29] Eucidaris tribuloides
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [30] Eurygonias hylacanthus
    Last Modified in 06/11/14
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    [31] Evasterias troschelii
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [32] Florometra serratissima
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [33] Genocidaris maculata
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [34] Gorgonocephalus eucnemis
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [35] Gymnocrinus richeri
    Last Modified in 06/11/14
    0363600002
    [36] Harriamania planktophilus
    Last Modified in 06/11/14
    279900002
    [37] Heliaster helianthoides
    Last Modified in 06/11/14
    0363600002
    [38] Henricia sp
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [39] Holopneustes inflatus
    Last Modified in 06/11/14
    0363600002
    [40] Holothuria leucospilota
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [41] Hymenaster pellucidus
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
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    [42] Leptasterias hexactis
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
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    [43] Leptosynapta clarkii
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
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    [44] Luidia clathrata
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [45] Luidia foliolata
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
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    [46] Macroptychaster accrescens
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
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    [47] Meoma ventricosa
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [48] Mespilia globulus
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [49] Metacrinusrotundus
    Last Modified in 06/11/14
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    [50] Odontaster validus
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [51] Ophiocanops fugiens
    Last Modified in 06/11/14
    0363600002
    [52] Ophiocoma echinata
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [53] Ophioderma brevispinum
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
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    [54] Ophiomyxa flaccida
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
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    [55] Ophionereis reticulata
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
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    [56] Ophiopholis aculeata
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [57] Ophiopsammus maculata
    Last Modified in 06/11/14
    0363600002
    [58] Ophiothrix oerstedii
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [59] Paracentrotus lividus
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [60] Parastichopus californicus
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [61] Patiriella regularis
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [62] Pentacta pygmaea
    Last Modified in 06/11/14
    0363600002
    [63] Perknaster fuscus
    Last Modified in 06/11/14
    0363600002
    [64] Pisaster ochraceus
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [65] Psammechinus miliaris
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [66] Pseudarchaster pareli
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [67] Pseudechinus albocinctus
    Last Modified in 06/11/14
    0363600002
    [68] Pseudostichopus villosus
    Last Modified in 06/11/14
    0363600002
    [69] Psychropotes longicauda
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [70] Pteraster tesselatus
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
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    [71] Ptychodera flava
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    279900002
    [72] Rathbunaster californicus
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [73] Saccoglossus kowalevskii
    Last Modified in 06/11/14
    279900002
    [74] Salmaciella oligopora
    Last Modified in 06/11/14
    0363600002
    [75] Salmacis belli
    Last Modified in 06/11/14
    0363600002
    [76] Schizostella bifurcata
    Last Modified in 06/11/14
    0363600002
    [77] Solaster stimpsonii
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [78] Sphaerechinus granularis
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [79] Stegnaster inflatus
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [80] Stichaster australis
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [81] Stomopneustes variolaris
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [82] Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [83] Temnopleurus alexandri
    Last Modified in 06/11/14
    0363600002
    [84] Temnotrema sculptum
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [85] Tripneustes gratilla
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002
    [86] Xyloplax janetae
    Last Modified in 03/27/15
    0363600002


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