Project 1221: J. C. Lamsdell. 2016. Horseshoe crab phylogeny and independent colonizations of fresh water: ecological invasion as a driver for morphological innovation. Palaeontology. 59:181–194.
Specimen: Tachypleus gigas (unvouchered)

Abstract

Xiphosurids are an archaic group of aquatic chelicerate arthropods, generally known by the colloquial misnomer of ‘horseshoe crabs’. Known from marine environments as far back as the early Ordovician, horseshoe crabs are generally considered ‘living fossils’ – descendants of a bradytelic lineage exhibiting little morphological or ecological variation throughout geological time. However, xiphosurids are known from freshwater sediments in the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic; furthermore, the contention that xiphosurids show little morphological variation has never been tested empirically. Attempts to test this are hampered by the lack of a modern phylogenetic framework with which to explore different evolutionary scenarios. Here, I present a phylogenetic analysis of Xiphosurida and explore patterns of morphospace and environmental occupation of the group throughout the Phanerozoic. Xiphosurids are shown to have invaded non-marine environments independently at least five times throughout their evolutionary history, twice resulting in the radiation of major clades – bellinurines and austrolimulids – that occupied novel regions of morphospace. These clades show a convergent ecological pattern of differentiation, speciation and subsequent extinction. Horseshoe crabs are shown to have a more dynamic and complex evolutionary history than previously supposed, with the extant species representing only a fraction of the group's past ecological and morphological diversity.


Read the article »

Article DOI: 10.1111/pala.12220

Project DOI: 10.7934/P1221, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P1221
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 150 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 252 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 3 MB

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 25734
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 252
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 603
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:252/0
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MorphoBank Project 1221


    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    James Lamsdell
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 02/14/16
    150112520025734
    (19908, 0, 5826)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M2753' (150 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] † Fuxianhuia protensa
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    35147147070001
    [2] † Leanchoilia illecebrosa
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    36161161055001
    [3] † Alalcomenaeus cambricus
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    28168168056001
    [4] † Yohoia tenuis
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    70131131051001
    [5] † Emeraldella brocki
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    21163163068001
    [6] † Sydneyia inexpectans
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    42145145065001
    [7] † Olenoides serratus
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    13184184055001
    [8] Pycnogonum litorale
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    81021020142001
    [9] † Haliestes dasos
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    3985850128001
    [10] † Palaeoisopus problematicus
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    221161160114001
    [11] † Offacolus kingi
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    86128128038001
    [12] † Dibasterium durgae
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    57146146049001
    [13] † Anderella parva
    Last Modified in 08/20/14
    1558282015001
    [14] † Weinbergina opitzi
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    67156156029001
    [15] † Camanchia grovensis
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    1469090016001
    [16] † Venustulus waukeshaensis
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    126107107019001
    [17] † Willwerathia laticeps
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    1459292015001
    [18] † Legrandella lombardi
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    137101101014001
    [19] † Bembicosoma pomphicus
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    1588080014001
    [20] † Bunodes lunula
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    1558181016001
    [21] † Limuloides limuloides
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    1489191013001
    [22] † Pasternakevia podolica
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    1568282014001
    [23] † Cyamocephalus loganensis
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    1508888014001
    [24] † Pseudoniscus roosevelti
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    1558383014001
    [25] † Winneshiek
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    1548484014001
    [26] † Euproops anthrax
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    98130130024001
    [27] † Euproops mariae
    Last Modified in 07/17/14
    1697272011001
    [28] † Euproops danae
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    93135135024001
    [29] † Euproops rotundatus
    Last Modified in 07/17/14
    1469393013001
    [30] † Euproops sp
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    91133133028001
    [31] † Bellinurus lunatus
    Last Modified in 07/18/14
    1489090014001
    [32] † Bellinurus arcuatus
    Last Modified in 07/18/14
    1489090014001
    [33] † Bellinurus reginae
    Last Modified in 07/18/14
    1498888015001
    [34] † Bellinurus truemanii
    Last Modified in 07/18/14
    1498888015001
    [35] † Bellinurus bellulus
    Last Modified in 07/18/14
    1528585015001
    [36] † Bellinurus trilobitoides
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    1548383015001
    [37] † Anacontium brevis
    Last Modified in 07/16/14
    218323202001
    [38] † Anacontium carpenteri
    Last Modified in 07/16/14
    218323202001
    [39] † Liomesaspis leonardensis
    Last Modified in 07/16/14
    1914141020001
    [40] † Liomesaspis laevis
    Last Modified in 07/16/14
    1507979023001
    [41] † Alanops magnifica
    Last Modified in 07/16/14
    58146146048001
    [42] † Pringlia birtwelli
    Last Modified in 07/17/14
    1606565027001
    [43] † Kasibelinurus amoricum
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    155898908001
    [44] † Houia yueya
    Last Modified in 05/25/15
    1448484024001
    [45] † Kasibelinurus randalli
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    1697373010001
    [46] † Lunataspis aurora
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    1458888019001
    [47] Limulus polyphemus
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    0211211041001
    [48] † Limulus darwini
    Last Modified in 05/25/15
    1637272017001
    [49] † Limulus decheni
    Last Modified in 07/14/14
    1488787017001
    [50] † Limulus coffini
    Last Modified in 07/14/14
    1944343015001
    [51] † Casterolimulus kletti
    Last Modified in 07/16/14
    219313102001
    [52] † Crenatolimulus paluxyensis
    Last Modified in 07/14/14
    1597676017001
    [53] Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda
    Last Modified in 07/03/14
    0211211041001
    [54] † Tachypleus gadeai
    Last Modified in 07/14/14
    1528383017001
    [55] Tachypleus gigas
    Last Modified in 07/03/14
    0212212040001
    [56] † Mesolimulus syriacus
    Last Modified in 07/21/14
    1439392017001
    [57] Tachypleus tridentatus
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    1211211040001
    [58] † Yunnanolimulus luopingensis
    Last Modified in 07/11/14
    96124124032001
    [59] † Xaniopyramis linseyi
    Last Modified in 07/10/14
    189585805001
    [60] † Bellinuroopsis rossicus
    Last Modified in 07/18/14
    1528585015001
    [61] † Rolfeia fouldenensis
    Last Modified in 07/10/14
    1439494015001
    [62] † Tarracolimulus rieki
    Last Modified in 07/14/14
    1548282016001
    [63] † Victalimulus mcqueeni
    Last Modified in 07/16/14
    116117117019001
    [64] † Mesolimulus crespelli
    Last Modified in 07/15/14
    1706666016001
    [65] † Mesolimulus walchi
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    57165165030001
    [66] † Panduralimulus babcocki
    Last Modified in 07/11/14
    1429090020001
    [67] † Austrolimulus fletcheri
    Last Modified in 07/11/14
    1577676019001
    [68] † Psammolimulus gottingensis
    Last Modified in 07/11/14
    113114114025001
    [69] † Limulitella bronni
    Last Modified in 07/17/14
    1587878016001
    [70] † Limulitella vicensis
    Last Modified in 07/21/14
    1776363012001
    [71] † Limulitella henkeli
    Last Modified in 07/17/14
    1696868015001
    [72] † Paleolimulus fuchsbergensis
    Last Modified in 07/11/14
    1577676019001
    [73] † Paleolimulus peetae
    Last Modified in 07/11/14
    1458686021001
    [74] † Paleolimulus longispinus
    Last Modified in 07/15/14
    1418888023001
    [75] † Valloisella lievinensis
    Last Modified in 07/16/14
    1468989017001
    [76] † Paleolimulus signatus
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    46175175031001
    [77] † Stoermeropterus conicus
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    25195195032001
    [78] † Moselopterus ancylotelson
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    24191191037001
    [79] † Onychopterella kokomoensis
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    33186186033001
    [80] † Eurypterus tetragonophthalmus
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    10209209033001
    [81] † Erieopterus macrophthalmus
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    33186186033001
    [82] † Strobilopterus proteus
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    47182182023001
    [83] † Dolichopterus macrocheirus
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    22198198032001
    [84] † Carcinosoma newlini
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    31185185036001
    [85] † Megalograptus ohioensis
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    22197197033001
    [86] † Mixopterus kiaeri
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    32184184036001
    [87] † Orcanopterus manitoulinensis
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    73142142037001
    [88] † Adelophthalmus sievertsi
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    46171171035001
    [89] † Nanahughmilleria norvegica
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    24195195033001
    [90] † Hughmilleria socialis
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    23192192037001
    [91] † Slimonia acuminata
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    25190190037001
    [92] † Erettopterus bilobus
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    25188188039001
    [93] † Pterygotus anglicus
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    31181181040001
    [94] † Brachyopterus stubblefieldi
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    71147147034001
    [95] † Rhenopterus diensti
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    24195195033001
    [96] † Parastylonurus ornatus
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    32187187033001
    [97] † Laurieipterus elegans
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    95124124033001
    [98] † Kokomopterus longicaudatus
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    44174174034001
    [99] † Hardieopterus macrophthalmus
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    74147147031001
    [100] † Drepanopterus pentlandicus
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    28194193031001
    [101] † Hibbertopterus scouleri
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    30191191031001
    [102] † Megarachne servinei
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    1735958021001
    [103] † Chasmataspis laurencii
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    113116116023001
    [104] † Loganamaraspis dunlopi
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    94127127031001
    [105] † Achanarraspis reedi
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    1538181018001
    [106] † Heteroaspis stoermeri
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    1448686022001
    [107] † Diploaspis casteri
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    106121121025001
    [108] † Diploaspis muelleri
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    1488282022001
    [109] † Dvulikiaspis menneri
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    120100100032001
    [110] † Octoberaspis ushakovi
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    64156156032001
    [111] Centruroides vittatus
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    0197197055001
    [112] Androctonus australis
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    1197197054001
    [113] † Proscorpius osborni
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    29167167056001
    [114] † Palaeophonus nuncius
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    54144144054001
    [115] Caddo agilis
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    7176176069001
    [116] Chileogovea oedipus
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    14172172066001
    [117] Cyphophthalmus duricorius
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    15172172065001
    [118] Gonyleptes horridus
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    8177177067001
    [119] Leiobunum rotundum
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    8176176068001
    [120] Sclerobunus robustus
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    8177177067001
    [121] Allothrombium simoni
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    16160159077001
    [122] Amblyomma americanum
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    14158157081001
    [123] Neocarus texanus
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    9166166077001
    [124] Cryptocellus goodnighti
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    5179179068001
    [125] Poliochera punctulata
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    60125125067001
    [126] Ricinoides atewa
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    5179179068001
    [127] † Anthracomartus hindi
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    32156156064001
    [128] † Eophrynus prestvicii
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    33158158061001
    [129] † Gilboarachne griersoni
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    21166166065001
    [130] † Palaeocharinus sp.
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    9178178065001
    [131] † Mesotarbus peteri
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    53135135064001
    [132] † Plesiosiro madeleyi
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    44144144064001
    [133] Eukoenenia mirabilis
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    4180179069001
    [134] Prokoenenia wheeleri
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    4180179069001
    [135] Mastigoproctus giganteus
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    4189189059001
    [136] Thelyphonus caudatus
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    4185185063001
    [137] Hubbardia pentapeltis
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    4185184064001
    [138] Schizomus crassicaudatus
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    4185184064001
    [139] † Permarachne novokshonovi
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    111102102039001
    [140] † Attercopus filmbriunguis
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    1656969018001
    [141] Liphistius malayanus
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    4174174074001
    [142] Aphonopelma hentzi
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    4166166082001
    [143] Hypochilus pococki
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    5166166081001
    [144] Cupienius getazi
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    4165165083001
    [145] Neobisium maritimum
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    11165164077001
    [146] Chelifer cancroides
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    11164163078001
    [147] Eremocosta striata
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    11161160081001
    [148] Galeodes armeniacus
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    13160159080001
    [149] Phrynus marginemaculatus
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    5181181066001
    [150] Charinus victori
    Last Modified in 07/02/14
    6180180066001


    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views15723
    Project overview2564
    Media views2703Media search (2410 views); M406229 (293 views);
    Matrix views1735Matrix landing page (1547 views); Xiph focus (188 views);
    Bibliography558
    Specimen list1244
    Taxon list6919




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project426
    Matrix downloads50Xiph focus (50 downloads);
    Project downloads376