Project 1238: K. T. Stilson, S. S. B. Hopkins, E. B. Davis. 2014. 50 Million Years of Severe Osteopathology in Rhinocerotidae, Meeting Abstract. Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology.
Specimen: † Menoceras arikarense (AMNH:144630)
View: Phalanges

Abstract

Skeletal pathologies in the fossil record are commonly considered indicators of an individual animal’s life history and development, and not reflections of processes related to all or part of a lineage’s history. Individual elements of many extinct and extant rhinocerotids display arthritis-like osteopathologies. The proportion of severe osteopathology increases over the last 50 million years from about 30% of all elements in a taxon from the Eocene showing some form of osteopathology to 100% of all elements in modern taxa. The Rhinocerotidae preserved in the fossil record do not represent a direct lineage, but a group of closely related organisms that present a study system for pathological evolution and development. Osteopathology is examined here in six extinct taxa spanning 50 Ma (Hyrachyus eximus, Diceratherium sp., Trigonias osborni, Menoceras arikarensus, Aphelops sp., and Teleoceras sp.) as well as the five living species of rhinoceroses. Seven pathological indicators (overgrowth, lipping, remodeling, erosions, worn articular surface, and variable foramen shape and size) were scored for each element on a scale of 1-4 and mapped on a phylogenetic tree using Mesquite to establish ancestral and lineage expression of osteopathology (i.e., that present in the common ancestor and also that present as successive points along the tree). We estimated mass from femur length and compared resulting values with the literature. We measured cursoriality using the established proxies of metatarsal length over femur length (MT/F), and total hind-leg length (femur + tibia + metatarsal). Estimated mass increases from 50 Ma to the present and correlates with the increased expression of osteopathology while cursoriality, the other trait examined as a possible contributing factor, did not. This degree of osteopatholgical expression may be an example of evolutionary compromise.


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Project DOI: 10.7934/P1238, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P1238
This project containsMatrices
  • 1297 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 7 Documents
  • 51 Taxa
  • 322 Specimens
  • 72 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 2G

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 2724
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 72
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 183
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:72/0
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MorphoBank Project 1238

    Authors' Institutions

    • University of Oregon

    • University of Texas at Austin



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media media
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    Kelsey Stilson
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 05/05/15
    513221297777200002724
    (2724, 0, 0)
    02664000
    MorphoBank Curator
    Full membership
    Last logged in 05/08/15
    0000000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    00000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M2867' (45 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
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    "-" cellscell images labels on
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    [1] † Hyrachyus
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    072000002
    [2] † Egysodontinae
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    1953000002
    [3] † Hyracodontinae
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    369000002
    [4] † Teletaceras
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    2151000002
    [5] † Penetrigonas
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    2250000002
    [6] † Amphicaenopus
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    2151000002
    [7] † Trigonias osborni
    Last Modified in 08/25/14
    468000002
    [8] † Subhyracodon
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    864000002
    [9] † Diceratherium
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    369000002
    [10] † Menoceras arikarense
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    072000002
    [11] † Floridaceras
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    567000002
    [13] † Peraceras
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    1260000002
    [14] † Aphelops mutilis
    Last Modified in 08/25/14
    468000002
    [15] † Teleoceras hicksi
    Last Modified in 08/25/14
    567000002
    [16] † Ronzotherium
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    1359000002
    [17] † Mesaceratherium
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    3141000002
    [18] † Protaceratherium
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    765000002
    [19] † Pleuroceros
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    1458000002
    [20] † Diceratherium niobrarense
    Last Modified in 08/25/14
    765000002
    [21] † Brachypotherium
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    765000002
    [22] † Prosantorhinus
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    666000002
    [23] † Alicornops
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    270000002
    [24] † Hoploaceratherium
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    270000002
    [25] † Aceratjeroi
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    666000002
    [26] † Lartetotherium
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    468000002
    [27] † L.schleiermacheri
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    369000002
    [28] † Stephanorhinus
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    1062000002
    [29] † Coleodonta
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    468000002
    [30] † Hispanotherium
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    2052000002
    [31] † Begertherium
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    1260000002
    [32] † Beliajevina
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    1260000002
    [33] † Iranotherium
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    2745000002
    [34] † Elasmotherium
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    2151000002
    [35] † Ninxiatherium
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    3933000002
    [36] † Acerorhinus
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    963000002
    [37] † Chilotherium
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    1062000002
    [38] † Chilotheridium
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    1953000002
    [39] † Aprotodon
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    1557000002
    [40] † Gaindatherium
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    2448000002
    [41] † Punjabitherium
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    3240000002
    [42] Rhinoceros
    Last Modified in 09/11/14
    369000002
    [43] Dicerorhinus sumatrensis
    Last Modified in 08/27/14
    567000002
    [44] Diceros bicornis
    Last Modified in 08/25/14
    171000002
    [45] Ceratotherium simum
    Last Modified in 08/25/14
    171000002
    [46] † Paradiceros
    Last Modified in 01/16/15
    2349000002


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    Views for media list4839
    Documents list1528
    Matrix views1895Matrix landing page (1714 views); Character Data from Cerdeño 1995 (176 views); (5 views);
    Specimen list88695
    Taxon list9299
    Bibliography607




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project333
    Document downloads7Unpruned Rhino Tree from Cerdeño 1995 for R (1 download); Mass Estimates for Extinct and Extinct Rhinocerotidae (3 downloads); Osteopathology Scores for R (2 downloads); R Code for Rhino Osteopathology Project (1 download);
    Matrix downloads7Character Data from Cerdeño 1995 (7 downloads);
    Project downloads316
    Media downloads3M365878 (1 download); M337080 (1 download); M336850 (1 download);