Project 2084: J. D. Carrillo, R. J. Asher. 2017. An exceptionally well preserved skeleton Thomashuxleya externa (Mammalia, Notoungulata), from the Eocene of Patagonia, Argentina. Palaeontologia electronica. 20.2.34A:1-33.
Specimen: † Thomashuxleya externa (MEPF-PV 8166)
View: Artistic reconstruction

Abstract

We describe one of the oldest notoungulate skeletons with associated craniodental and postcranial elements: Thomashuxleya externa (Isotemnidae) from Cañadón Vaca in Patagonia, Argentina (Vacan subage of the Casamayoran SALMA, middle Eocene). We provide body mass estimates given by different elements of the skeleton, describe the bone histology, and study its phylogenetic position. We note differences in the scapulae, humerii, ulnae and radii of the new specimen in comparison with other specimens previously referred to this taxon. We estimate a body mass of 84 ± 24.2 kg, showing that notoungulates had acquired a large body mass by the middle Eocene. Bone histology shows that the new specimen was skeletally mature. The new material supports the placement of Thomashuxleya as an early, divergent member of Toxodontia. Among placentals, our phylogenetic analysis of a combined DNA, collagen, and morphology matrix favor only a limited number of possible phylogenetic relationships, but cannot yet arbitrate between potential affinities with Afrotheria or Laurasiatheria. With no constraint, maximum parsimony supports Thomashuxleya and Carodnia with Afrotheria. With Notoungulata and Litopterna constrained as monophyletic (including Macrauchenia and Toxodon known for collagens), these clades are reconstructed on the stem to Euungulata (i.e., Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla). Unconstrained, Bayesian analysis weakly supports the possibility that Thomashuxleya is a stem xenarthran; with Notoungulata and Litopterna constrained as monophyletic, the two clades are recovered as sister to Perissodactyla. Anatomical data sampled thus far for Thomashuxleya, combined with collagen amino acids for Pleistocene meridiungulates, substantially limit the number of possible affinities for endemic South American species among mammals, although ambiguity still remains.


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Project DOI: 10.7934/P2084, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P2084
This project containsMatrices
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  • 2 Matrices
  • 6 Documents
  • 154 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 3806 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 8 MB

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Total scored cells: 257229
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 3806
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 8991
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:3792/14
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    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    comms
       
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    Juan David Carrillo
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 09/22/17
    154113806000257229
    (175656, 0, 81573)
    000
    Robert Asher
    Full membership
    Last logged in 07/11/17
    00000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M22531' (86 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
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    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] † Thomashuxleya externa
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    1653150014860521002
    [2] † Carodnia vieirai
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    170214644640494002
    [3] † Protolipterna ellipsodontoides
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    23669813320314002
    [4] † Didolodus multicuspis
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    24828918910287002
    [5] † Morganucodon oehleri
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    13031328128501032002
    [6] † Morganucodon watsoni
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    7471720171601196002
    [7] † Haldanodon exspectatus
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    1073160115730992002
    [8] Ornithorhynchus anatinus
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    531930189501682002
    [9] Tachyglossus aculeatus
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    191546134402099002
    [10] † Zhangheotherium quinquecuspidens
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    8161609158601238002
    [11] † Henkelotherium guimarotae
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    1872108310830705002
    [12] † Pucadelphys andinus
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    800206620300801002
    [13] Didelphis virginiana
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    1127435930922002
    [14] Dromiciops gliroides
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    30224825620882002
    [15] † Eomaia scansoria
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    1835141314100412002
    [16] † Maelestes gobiensis
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    1690145412290518002
    [17] Dasypus novemcinctus
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    34183660001804002
    [18] † Hapalops elongatus
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    46315191001706002
    [19] Tamandua tetradactyla
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    2417298301917002
    [20] Manis pentadactyla
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    60159078502019002
    [21] † Metacheiromys marshi
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    1912142420324002
    [22] † Ukhaatherium nessovi
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    1650148113580530002
    [23] † Zalambdalestes lechei
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    1463167716370526002
    [24] † Leptictis dakotensis
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    534249424570634002
    [25] Solenodon paradoxus
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    31275823730891002
    [26] Talpa europaea
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    892583244501000002
    [27] Erinaceus europaeus
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    37266526300968002
    [28] Sorex araneus
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    5251941189601197002
    [29] Amblysomus hottentotus
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    354233220040987002
    [30] Echinops telfairi
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    314235922090993002
    [31] Rhynchocyon cirnei
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    50270825420910002
    [32] Procavia capensis
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    51280724870828002
    [33] Loxodonta africana
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    692194212401398002
    [34] Trichechus manatus
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    1931820176501660002
    [35] † Moeritherium lyonsi
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    1453154314520665002
    [36] Galeopterus variegatus
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    348255523190762002
    [37] Cynocephalus volans
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    942780150796002
    [38] Ptilocercus lowii
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    33026937700642002
    [39] Tupaia glis
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    4129139250713002
    [40] Homo sapiens
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    29276225090932002
    [41] Lemur catta catta
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    11528087210742002
    [42] Saimiri sciureus
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    8827177680863002
    [43] Tarsius syrichta
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    27724721720912002
    [44] † Notharctus tenebrosus
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    626242011420620002
    [45] † Protungulatum donnae
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    234510099870306002
    [46] † Apheliscus insidiosus
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    222910274170404002
    [47] † Phenacodus intermedius
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    502253514200624002
    [48] † Hyopsodus paulus
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    1018199619920650002
    [49] Felis silvestris
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    172521251101127002
    [50] Canis lupus familiaris
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    19287928630767002
    [51] † Vulpavus ovatus
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    1545162520493002
    [52] † Vulpavus profectus
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    1233189020540002
    [53] † Sinopa rapax
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    1318185018420496002
    [54] Oryctolagus cuniculus
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    1282431242501102002
    [55] † Dawsonolagus antiquus
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    25146106070536002
    [56] † Gomphos elkema
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    910189210858002
    [57] † Rhombomylus turpanensis
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    550213221030996002
    [58] † Tribosphenomys minutus
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    19919969770685002
    [59] † Paramys delicatus
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    6761975166501021002
    [60] † Cocomys lingchaensis
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    1376137613530917002
    [61] Ictidomys tridecemlineatus
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    3002293221101073002
    [62] Castor canadensis
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    792414231901188002
    [63] Cavia porcellus
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    132246219601420002
    [64] Rattus norvegicus
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    42201188601466002
    [65] Orycteropus afer
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    2961867140001502002
    [66] Equus caballus
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    78270921780883002
    [67] Sus scrofa
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    204261720170854002
    [68] Tursiops truncatus
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    95116383602410002
    [69] Hippopotamus amphibius
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    174254921810942002
    [70] Lama glama
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    1612428203401074002
    [71] Bos taurus
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    772579217301010002
    [72] † Mesohippus bairdi
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    740224219390682002
    [73] Caperea marginata
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    34883470102486002
    [74] † Basilosaurus cetoides
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    170310408150917002
    [75] † Mesonyx obtusidens
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    1093172914470838002
    [76] † Archaeotherium mortoni
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    839195917540864002
    [77] † Artiocetus clavis
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    24507506790461002
    [78] † Rodhocetus balochistanensis
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    3196386339078002
    [79] Pteropus giganteus
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    512165107201445002
    [80] Rhinopoma hardwickii
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    347234212910974002
    [81] Saccopteryx bilineata
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    356235313990952002
    [82] Nycteris thebaica
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    4952163141801002002
    [83] Myotis lucifugus
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    3402257152301065002
    [84] Pteronotus parnellii
    Last Modified in 12/16/14
    445235116870868002
    [85] † Icaronycteris index
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    1297181811350549002
    [86] † Onychonycteris finneyi
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    1715147110020486002


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M24667' (68 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
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    [1] † Leptictis
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    8108108030002
    [2] † Phenacodus
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    7102102037002
    [3] † Meniscotherium
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    5105105036002
    [4] † Protolipterna
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    1022323021002
    [5] † Proterotherium
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    99393044002
    [6] † Trigonostylops
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    199595032002
    [7] † Astrapotherium
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    99998039002
    [8] † Pyrotherium
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    427979025002
    [9] † Notostylops
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    413813804002
    [10] † Henricosbornia
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    101434302002
    [11] † Simpsonotus
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    2511911902002
    [12] † Pleurostylodon
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    1513012902002
    [13] † Thomashuxleya
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    3510910902002
    [14] † Pampahippus
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    81645902002
    [15] † Periphragnis
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    913613502002
    [16] † Ryphodon
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    54898803002
    [17] † Puelia
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    54919001002
    [18] † Leontinia
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    1612712703002
    [19] † Colpodon
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    2411911903002
    [20] † Ancylocoelus
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    4210110004002
    [21] † Scarittia
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    3411011002002
    [22] † Homalodotherium
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    1512812803002
    [23] † Asmodeus
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    68757503002
    [24] † Rhynchippus
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    1612912901002
    [25] † Eurygenium
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    60858401002
    [26] † Pascualihippus
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    63838201002
    [27] † Eomorphippus
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    73747201002
    [28] † Morphippus
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    3511011001002
    [29] † Argyrohippus
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    3311311201002
    [30] † Nesodon
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    1313112903002
    [31] † Adinotherium
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    1113313203002
    [32] † Hoffstetterius
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    41989807002
    [33] † Ponanskytherium
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    3810010008002
    [34] † Toxodon
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    40989808002
    [35] † Colbertia
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    2911711601002
    [36] † Oldfieldthomasia
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    1612812802002
    [37] † Campanorco
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    50949402002
    [38] † Acropithecus
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    73717102002
    [39] † Ultrapithecus
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    101434302002
    [40] † Notopithecus
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    913513304002
    [41] † Archaeophylus
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    125181803002
    [42] † Cochilius
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    46979703002
    [43] † Plagiarthrus
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    54878705002
    [44] † Protypotherium
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    2212011905002
    [45] † Miocochilius
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    52898905002
    [46] † Interatherium
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    3610410406002
    [47] † Federicoanaya
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    4110010005002
    [48] † Trachytherus
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    1612812802002
    [49] † Plesiotypotherium
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    29104104013002
    [50] † Mesotherium
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    33100100013002
    [51] † Eohyrax
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    92525202002
    [52] † Pseudhyrax
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    77676702002
    [53] † Archaeotypotherium
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    64808002002
    [54] † Archaeohyrax
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    1413113002002
    [55] † Prohegetotherium
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    58868602002
    [56] † Hegetotherium
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    3211311202002
    [57] † Prosotherium
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    568080010002
    [58] † Paedotherium
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    439090013002
    [59] † Zalambdalestes
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    2103103041002
    [60] † Macrauchenia
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    13101101032002
    [61] † Pampahippus secundus
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    71767401002
    [62] † Plexotemnus
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    101454401002
    [63] † Coquenia
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    1013513501002
    [64] † Griphotherion
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    2112312302002
    [65] † Boreastylops
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    2212012004002
    [66] † Pampatemnus deuteros
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    3910710700002
    [67] † Pampatemnus infernalis
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    76696901002
    [68] † Martinmiguelia fernandezi
    Last Modified in 07/19/17
    101454500002


    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views7679
    Media views845Media search (738 views); M425185 (107 views);
    Project overview1400
    Documents list322
    Views for media list254
    Specimen list474
    Taxon list3479
    Bibliography255
    Matrix views650Matrix landing page (490 views); Relationships of Thomashuxleya within Notoungulata (49 views); Relationships of Thomashuxleya within Placentals (111 views);




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project181
    Document downloads5Matrix with constraint (1 download); Matrix with no constraints for Notoungulata (1 download); Matrix with constraint for Notoungulata and Litopterna (3 downloads);
    Matrix downloads43Relationships of Thomashuxleya within Placentals (34 downloads); Relationships of Thomashuxleya within Notoungulata (9 downloads);
    Project downloads131
    Media downloads2M425185 (2 downloads);