Project 2124: E. Tschopp, O. Mateus, R. B. Benson. 2015. A specimen-level phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic revision of Diplodocidae (Dinosauria, Sauropoda). PeerJ. 3:e857.
Specimen: † Kaatedocus siberi (SMA :0004)
View: cervical vertebra 12

Abstract

Diplodocidae are among the best known sauropod dinosaurs. Several species were described in the late 1800s or early 1900s from the Morrison Formation of North America. Since then, numerous additional specimens were recovered in the USA, Tanzania, Portugal, and Argentina, as well as possibly Spain, England, Georgia, Zimbabwe, and Asia. To date, the clade includes about 12 to 15 nominal species, some of them with questionable taxonomic status (e.g. 'Diplodocus' hayi or Dyslocosaurus polyonychius), and ranging in age from Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. However, intrageneric relationships of the iconic, multi-species genera Apatosaurus and Diplodocus are still poorly known. The way to resolve this issue is a specimen-based phylogenetic analysis, which has been previously implemented for Apatosaurus, but is here performed for the first time for the entire clade of Diplodocidae. The analysis includes 81 operational taxonomic units, 49 of which belong to Diplodocidae. The set of OTUs includes all name-bearing type specimens previously proposed to belong to Diplodocidae, alongside a set of relatively complete referred specimens, that increase the amount of anatomically overlapping material. Non-diplodocid outgroups were selected to test the affinities of potential diplodocid specimens that have subsequently been suggested to belong outside the clade. The specimens were scored for 477 morphological characters, representing one of the most extensive phylogenetic analyses of sauropod dinosaurs. Character states were figured and tables given in the case of numerical characters. The resulting cladogram recovers the classical arrangement of diplodocid relationships. Two numerical approaches were used to increase reproducibility in our taxonomic delimitation of species and genera. This resulted in the proposal that some species previously included in well-known genera like Apatosaurus and Diplodocus are generically distinct. Of particular note is that the famous genus Brontosaurus is considered valid by our quantitative approach. Furthermore, “Diplodocus” hayi represents a unique genus, which will herein be called Galeamopus gen. nov. On the other hand, these numerical approaches imply synonymization of “Dinheirosaurus” from the Late Jurassic of Portugal with the Morrison Formation genus Supersaurus. Our use of a specimen-, rather than species-based approach increases knowledge of intraspecific and intrageneric variation in diplodocids, and the study demonstrates how specimen-based phylogenetic analysis is a valuable tool in sauropod taxonomy, and potentially in paleontology and taxonomy as a whole.


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Article DOI: 10.7717/peerj.857

Project DOI: 10.7934/P2124, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P2124
This project containsMatrices
  • 134 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 3 Documents
  • 130 Taxa
  • 104 Specimens
  • 477 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 96.9M

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 13458
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 477
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 1024
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:477/0
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MorphoBank Project 2124

    Authors' Institutions

    • University of Oxford

    • University of Torino

    • American Museum of Natural History

    • Museu da Lourinha

    • Universidade Nova de Lisboa



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media media
    notes
    chars character
    comms
       
    notes  media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    comms
        
    notes  medialabels
    rules
    Emanuel Tschopp
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 04/07/15
    486400000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    00000
    Maureen Admin
    Full membership
    Last logged in 01/24/20
    123300000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    00000
    MorphoBank Curator
    Full membership
    Last logged in 04/25/16
    0713434000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    00000
    MorphoBank Curator
    Last logged in 09/18/20
    70000477000013458
    (13458, 0, 0)
    00000
    Seth Kaufman
    Last logged in 09/18/20
    0000000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    00000
    Octávio Mateus
    Full membership
    Last logged in Never
    0000000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    00000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M26939' (81 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
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    [1] † Shunosaurus lii
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    10936836800004
    [2] † Spinophorosaurus nigerensis
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    18529229200004
    [3] Omeisaurus
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    9438338300004
    [4] Mamenchisaurus
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    10337437400004
    [5] † Jobaria tiguidensis
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    13034734700004
    [6] Turiasaurus riodevensis
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    30217517500004
    [7] Losillasaurus giganteus type
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    28818918900004
    [8] † Camarasaurus
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    1746046000004
    [9] Amphicoelias latus amnh 5765
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    447303000004
    [10] Apatosaurus grandis ypm 1901
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    29817917900004
    [11] Dystrophaeus viaemalae usnm 2364
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    457202000004
    [12] Lourinhasaurus alenquerensis lectotype
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    34113613600004
    [13] † Giraffatitan brancai
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    5742042000004
    [14] SMA 0009
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    27819919900004
    [15] Brachiosaurus altithorax
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    31016716700004
    [16] Australodocus bohetii type
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    438393900004
    [17] Ligabuesaurus leanzai
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    34113613600004
    [18] Isisaurus colberti
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    29018718700004
    [19] Haplocanthosaurus priscus
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    25322422400004
    [20] † Limaysaurus tessonei
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    18529229200004
    [21] Cathartesaura anaerobica
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    379989800004
    [22] Zapalasaurus bonapartei
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    395828200004
    [23] † Nigersaurus taqueti
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    18828928900004
    [24] † Demandasaurus darwini
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    32215515500004
    [25] Amphicoelias altus amnh 5764
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    418595900004
    [26] † Dicraeosaurus hansemanni
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    8039739700004
    [27] Brachytrachelopan mesai
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    35612112100004
    [28] † Amargasaurus cazaui
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    24223523500004
    [29] Suuwassea emilieae ans 21122
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    24423323300004
    [30] Apatosaurus ajax ypm 1860
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    24423323300004
    [31] Apatosaurus laticollis ypm 1861
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    442353500004
    [32] Brontosaurus excelsus ypm 1980
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    22625125100004
    [33] Brontosaurus amplus ypm 1981
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    403747400004
    [34] Apatosaurus louisae type
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    5442342300004
    [35] Atlantosaurus immanis ypm 1840
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    403747400004
    [36] Elosaurus parvus cm 566
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    381969600004
    [37] UW 15556
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    23124624600004
    [38] Apatosaurus minimus amnh 675
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    450272700004
    [39] Eobrontosaurus yahnahpin tate-001
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    29018718700004
    [40] NSMT-PV 20375
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    17929829800004
    [41] LACM 52844
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    405727200004
    [42] AMNH 460
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    32015715700004
    [43] CM 3378
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    411666600004
    [44] FMNH p25112
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    32315415400004
    [45] ML 418
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    436414100004
    [46] SMA 0087
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    31716016000004
    [47] Supersaurus vivianae byu
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    30117617600004
    [48] WDC dmj-021
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    32215515500004
    [49] † Dinheirosaurus lourinhanensis
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    37610110100004
    [50] Kaatedocus siberi sma 0004
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    28619119100004
    [51] Tornieria africana holotype
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    411666600004
    [52] MBR skeleton k
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    35911811800004
    [53] Diplodocus longus ypm 1920
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    458191900004
    [54] Diplodocus lacustris ypm 1922
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    4698800004
    [55] Diplodocus carnegii cm 84
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    23823923900004
    [56] Diplodocus carnegii cm 94
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    22725025000004
    [57] AMNH 223
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    33214514500004
    [58] USNM 10865
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    28019719700004
    [59] DMNS 1494
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    30317417400004
    [60] AMNH 969
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    36611111100004
    [61] CM 11161
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    35811911900004
    [62] CM 3452
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    30816916900004
    [63] USNM 2672
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    36511211200004
    [64] WDC-FS001A
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    395828200004
    [65] Galeamopus hayi hmns 175
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    23624124100004
    [66] SMA 0011
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    13034734700004
    [67] Seismosaurus hallorum nmmnh 3690
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    34713013000004
    [68] Barosaurus lentus ypm 429
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    28918818800004
    [69] Barosaurus affinis ypm 419
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    4698800004
    [70] AMNH 6341
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    22125625600004
    [71] AMNH 7530
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    34613113100004
    [72] CM 11984
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    37110610600004
    [73] AMNH 7535
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    409686800004
    [74] Cetiosauriscus stewarti nhmuk r3078
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    35112612600004
    [75] Dyslocosaurus polyonychius ac 663
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    442353500004
    [76] SMA o25-8
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    425525200004
    [77] SMA d16-3
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    434434300004
    [78] CM 11255
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    394838300004
    [79] USNM 2673
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    382959500004
    [80] BYU 1252-18531
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    25821921900004
    [81] Leinkupal laticauda mmch-pv 63-1
    Last Modified in 09/18/20
    459181800004


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