Project 2144: Thomas E. Williamson, Stephen L. Brusatte, Gregory P. Wilson. 2014. The origin and early evolution of metatherian mammals: the Cretaceous record. ZooKeys. 465:1-76.
Specimen: † Asioryctes nemegetensis (unvouchered)
View: skull, lateral

Abstract

Metatherians, which comprise marsupials and their closest fossil relatives, were one of the most dominant clades of mammals during the Cretaceous and are the most diverse clade of living mammals after Placentalia. Our understanding of this group has increased greatly over the past 20 years, with the discovery of new specimens and the application of new analytical tools. Here we provide a review of the phylogenetic relationships of metatherians with respect to other mammals, discuss the taxonomic definition and diagnosis of Metatheria, outline the Cretaceous history of major metatherian clades, describe the paleobiology, biogeography, and macroevolution of Cretaceous metatherians, and provide a physical and climatic background of Cretaceous metatherian faunas. Metatherians are a clade of boreosphendian mammals that must have originated by the Late Jurassic, but the first unequivocal metatherian fossil is from the Early Cretaceous of Asia. Metatherians have the distinctive tightly interlocking occlusal molar pattern of tribosphenic mammals, but differ from Eutheria in their dental formula and tooth replacement pattern, which may be related to the metatherian reproductive process which includes an extended period of lactation followed by birth of extremely altricial young. Metatherians were widespread over Laurasia during the Cretaceous, with members present in Asia, Europe, and North America by the early Late Cretaceous. In particular, they were taxonomically and morphologically diverse and relatively abundant in the Late Cretaceous of western North America, where they have been used to examine patterns of biogeography, macroevolution, diversification, and extinction through the Late Cretaceous and across the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary. Metatherian diversification patterns suggest that they were not strongly affected by a Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution, but they clearly underwent a severe extinction across the K-Pg boundary.


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Article DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.465.8178

Project DOI: 10.7934/P2144, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P2144
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 2 Documents
  • 109 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 124 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 1 MB

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 6895
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 124
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 283
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:124/0
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MorphoBank Project 2144

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    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M23277' (109 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
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    [1] † Vincelestes neuquenianus
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    69087028002
    [2] † Kielantherium gobiense
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    574646021002
    [3] † Potamotelses aquilensis
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    624847014002
    [4] † Juramaia sinensis
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    59595806002
    [5] † Prokennalestes trofimovi
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    22969506002
    [6] † Ukhaatherium nessovi
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    48706906002
    [7] † Asioryctes nemegetensis
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    910910806002
    [8] † Adelodelphys muizoni
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    724239010002
    [9] † Aenigmadelphys archeri
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    57615606002
    [10] † Albertatherium primum
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    79453700002
    [11] † Albertatherium secundum
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    81373306002
    [12] † Alphadon attaragos
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    63615800002
    [13] † Alphadon eatoni
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    100242100002
    [14] † Alphadon halleyi
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    45817400002
    [15] † Alphadon marshi
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    56686100002
    [16] † Alphadon perexiguus
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    63615600002
    [17] † Alphadon sahnii
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    60645900002
    [18] † Alphadon wilsoni
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    59656000002
    [19] † Anchistodelphys archibaldi
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    60655900002
    [20] † Anchistodelphys delicatus
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    783634010002
    [21] † Apistodon exiguus
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    80444000002
    [22] † Aquiladelphis laurae
    Last Modified in 05/22/15
    90333101002
    [23] † Aquiladelphis incus
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    59655900002
    [24] † Aquiladelphis minor
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    66575401002
    [25] † Arcantiodelphys marchandi
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    79434102002
    [26] † Armintodelphys blacki
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    100252300002
    [27] † Armintodelphys dawsoni
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    62625900002
    [28] † Asiatherium reshetovi
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    29867809002
    [29] † Atokatheridium boreni
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    585150015002
    [30] † Bistius bondi
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    83413900002
    [31] † Copedelphys innominata
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    59656100002
    [32] † Dakotadens morrowi
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    60675900002
    [33] † Deltatheridium pretrituberculare
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    129992013002
    [34] † Deltatheroides cretacicus
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    694543010002
    [35] Didelphis virginiana
    Last Modified in 03/31/15
    45807701002
    [36] † Didelphodon coyi
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    54645606002
    [37] † Didelphodon padanicus
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    99252400002
    [38] † Didelphodon vorax
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    111089806002
    [39] † Ectocentrocristus foxi
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    74504700002
    [40] † Eoalphadon clemensi
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    58676000002
    [41] † Eoalphadon lillegraveni
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    62645900002
    [42] † Eoalphadon woodburnei
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    63616000002
    [43] † Eodelphis browni
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    40787406002
    [44] † Eodelphis cutleri
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    55635706002
    [45] † Esteslestes ensis
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    100242100002
    [46] † Glasbius intricatus
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    56696100002
    [47] † Glasbius twitchelli
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    47777400002
    [48] † Hatcheritherium alpha
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    86383700002
    [49] † Golerdelphys stocki
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    62626200002
    [50] † Herpetotherium comstocki
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    59656400002
    [51] † Herpetotherium edwardi
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    58666200002
    [52] † Herpetotherium fugax
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    48767000002
    [53] † Herpetotherium knighti
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    56696600002
    [54] † Herpetotherium marsupium
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    54716400002
    [55] † Herpetotherium valens
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    1188600002
    [56] † Holoclemensia texana
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    58656301002
    [57] † Iqualadelphis lactea
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    79393506002
    [58] † Iugomortiferum thoringtoni
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    60636001002
    [59] † Kokopellia juddi
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    486658010002
    [60] † Leptalestes cooki
    Last Modified in 05/22/15
    60555109002
    [61] † Leptalestes krejcii
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    55605509002
    [62] † Leptalestes prokrejcii
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    61545009002
    [63] † Leptalestes toevsi
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    70474107002
    [64] † Maastrichtidelphys meurismeti
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    85393800002
    [65] † Mimoperadectes houdei
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    74514700002
    [66] † Mimoperadectes labrus
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    55706300002
    [67] † Nanocuris improvida
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    59565509002
    [68] † Nortedelphys intermedius
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    63615700002
    [69] † Nortedelphys jasoni
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    57676100002
    [70] † Nortedelphys magnus
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    56686300002
    [71] † Nortedelphys minimus
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    82423900002
    [72] † Oklatheridium szalayi
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    724140011002
    [73] † Pappotherium pattersoni
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    61545309002
    [74] † Pariadens kirklandi
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    62625800002
    [75] † Pariadens mckennai
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    105191700002
    [76] † Pediomys elegans
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    24999401002
    [77] † Peradectes californicus
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    56615707002
    [78] † Peradectes chesteri
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    595554010002
    [79] † Peradectes elegans
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    53726400002
    [80] † Peradectes gulottai
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    76424106002
    [81] † Peradectes coproxeches
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    57686100002
    [82] † Peradectes minor
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    55696500002
    [83] † Peradectes pauli
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    100242200002
    [84] † Peradectes protinnominatus
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    58666400002
    [85] † Protalphadon foxi
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    80473900002
    [86] † Protalphadon lulli
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    58676100002
    [87] † Protolambda clemensi
    Last Modified in 05/22/15
    595551010002
    [88] † Protolambda florencae
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    595551010002
    [89] † Protolambda hatcheri
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    536256010002
    [90] † Pucadelphys andinus
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    811610700002
    [91] † Roberthoffstetteria nationalgeographica
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    55696600002
    [92] † Sinbadelphys schmidti
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    585651010002
    [93] † Sulestes karakshi
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    258988011002
    [94] † Swaindelphys cifellii
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    57676300002
    [95] † Swaindelphys encinensis
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    57676400002
    [96] † Swaindelphys johansoni
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    52727100002
    [97] † Szalinia gracilis
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    50757000002
    [98] † Thylacodon pusillus holotype
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    104201900002
    [99] † Thylacodon pusillus
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    56686400002
    [100] † Thylacodon montanensis
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    53716800002
    [101] † Turgidodon lillegraveni
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    81434200002
    [102] † Turgidodon madseni
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    60646000002
    [103] † Turgidodon petiminis
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    60646000002
    [104] † Turgidodon praesagus
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    59666000002
    [105] † Turgidodon rhaister
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    36888300002
    [106] † Turgidodon russelli
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    50767100002
    [107] † Varalphadon crebreforme
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    79393606002
    [108] † Varalphadon creber
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    79454001002
    [109] † Varalphadon wahweapensis
    Last Modified in 05/21/15
    60645701002


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    Project overview2490
    Taxon list9908
    Media views3625Media search (3238 views); M377900 (387 views);
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    Documents list1404
    Specimen list1372
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