Project 2183: M. Heikkilä, M. Mutanen, N. Wahlberg, P. Sihvonen, L. Kaila. 2015. Elusive ditrysian phylogeny: an account of combining systematized morphology with molecular data (Lepidoptera). BMC Evolutionary Biology. 15 (260):1-27.
Specimen: Cyclotorna sp.

Abstract

Background
Ditrysia comprise close to 99 % of all butterflies and moths. The evolutionary relationships among the ditrysian superfamilies have received considerable attention in phylogenetic studies based on DNA and transcriptomic data, but the deepest divergences remain for large parts unresolved or contradictory. To obtain complementary insight into the evolutionary history of the clade, and to test previous hypotheses on the subdivision of Ditrysia based on morphology, we examine the morphology of larvae, pupae and adult males and females of 318 taxa representing nearly all ditrysian superfamilies and families. We present the most comprehensive morphological dataset on Ditrysia to date, consisting of over 500 morphological characters. The data are analyzed alone and combined with sequence data (one mitochondrial and seven nuclear protein-coding gene regions, sequenced from 422 taxa). The full dataset consists of 473 exemplar species. Analyses are performed using maximum likelihood methods, and parsimony methods for the morphological dataset. We explore whether combining morphological data and DNA-data can stabilize taxa that are unstable in phylogenetic studies based on genetic data only.

Results
Morphological characters are found phylogenetically informative in resolving apical nodes (superfamilies and families), but characters serving as evidence of relatedness of larger assemblages are few. Results include the recovery of a monophyletic Tineoidea, Sesioidea and Cossoidea, and a stable position for some unstable taxa (e.g. Epipyropidae, Cyclotornidae, Urodoidea + Schreckensteinioidea). Several such taxa, however, remain unstable even though morphological characters indicate a position in the tree (e.g. Immidae). Evidence supporting affinities between clades are suggested, e.g. a novel larval synapomorphy for Tineidae. We also propose the synonymy of Tineodidae with Alucitidae, syn. nov.

Conclusions
The large morphological dataset provides information on the diversity and distribution of morphological traits in Ditrysia, and can be used in future research on the evolution of these traits, in identification keys and in identification of fossil Lepidoptera. The “backbone” of the phylogeny for Ditrysia remains largely unresolved. As previously proposed as an explanation for the scarcity of molecular signal in resolving the deeper nodes, this may be due to the rapid radiation of Ditrysia in the Cretaceous.

Keywords: Ditrysia; Morphology; Lepidoptera; Phylogeny; Unstable taxa; Total evidence; Deep divergences



Read the article »

Article DOI: 10.1186/s12862-015-0520-0

Project DOI: 10.7934/P2183, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P2183
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 320 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 535 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 3 MB

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Total scored cells: 131906
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 535
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 1220
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:535/0
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MorphoBank Project 2183


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    Maria Heikkilä
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 11/23/15
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    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M23358' (318 Taxa)

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    [1] Eriocrania semipurpurella
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    10243343300001
    [2] Hepialus humuli
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    6746846800001
    [3] Andesiana lamellata
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    32321221200001
    [4] Lampronia capitella
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    9344244200001
    [5] Incurvaria pectinea
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    5647947900001
    [6] Azaleodes micronipha
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    31422122100001
    [7] Ptyssoptera sp.
    Last Modified in 11/23/15
    5148448400001
    [8] Tischeria ekebladella
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    8045545500001
    [9] Moerarchis australasiella
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    4349249200001
    [10] Myrmecozela ochraceella
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    32221321300001
    [11] Gerontha acrosthenia
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    32121421400001
    [12] Metapherna salsa
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    31721821800001
    [13] Harmaclona cossidella
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    33919619600001
    [14] Agnathosia mendicella
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    4748848800001
    [15] Scardia boletella
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    4249349300001
    [16] Nemapogon variatellus
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    3949649600001
    [17] Tinea pellionella
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    5048548500001
    [18] Lindera tesselatella
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    8644944900001
    [19] Edosa fuscoviolacella
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    31821721700001
    [20] Hapsifera luridella
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    32221321300001
    [21] Opogona sacchari
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    4349249200001
    [22] Erechthias mystacinella
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    6047547500001
    [23] Silosca licziae
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    32820720700001
    [24] Euplocamus anthracinalis
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    22531031000001
    [25] Psychoides verhuella
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    32720820800001
    [26] Dryadaula bronctotypa
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    33520020000001
    [27] Phereoeca walsinghami
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    9144444400001
    [28] Eriocottis fuscanella
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    34519019000001
    [29] Compsoctena
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    34219319300001
    [30] Acrolophus pholeter sp
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    27526026000001
    [31] Acrolophus popeanellus
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    8545045000001
    [32] Arrhenophanes perspicilla
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    [33] Dahlica lazuri
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    [34] Taleporia tubulosa
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    [35] Melasina ciliaris
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    [36] Acanthopsyche atra
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    [37] Canephora hirsuta
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    [38] Psyche crassiorella
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    8045545500001
    [39] Trigonocyttara clandestina
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    7745845800001
    [40] Roeslerstammia erxlebella
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    4349249200001
    [41] Vanicela disjunctella
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    4549049000001
    [42] Amphithera heteroleuca
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    20832732700001
    [43] Thereutis sp
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    4549049000001
    [44] Tinagma ocnerostomellum
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    [45] Bucculatrix ratisbonensis
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    5348248200001
    [46] Bucculatrix maritima
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    5647947900001
    [47] Ogmograptis sp
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    5348248200001
    [48] Gracillaria syringella
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    3849749700001
    [49] Phyllonorycter sorbi
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    5248348300001
    [50] Phyllonorycter apparellus
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    [51] Phyllocnistis labyrinthella
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    15438138100001
    [52] Yponomeuta evonymellus
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    [53] Tanaoctena dubia
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    [54] Cadmogenes literata
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    [55] Saridoscelis issikii
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    [56] Scythropia crataegella
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    [58] Prays fraxinellus
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    [59] Argyresthia conjugella
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    [60] Ypsolopha dentella
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    [61] Ochsenheimeria sp
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    [62] Plutella xylostella
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    [63] Tritymba pamphaea
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    [64] Proditrix tetragona
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    [65] Doxophyrtis hydrocosma
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    [66] Phylacodes cauta
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    [67] Acrolepiopsis assectella
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    [68] Orthotelia sparganella
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    [69] Glyphipterix haworthana
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    [70] Heliodines nyctaginella
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    [71] Bedellia somnulentella
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    [72] Lyonetia clerkella
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    [73] Leucoptera malifoliella
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    [74] Piestoceros conjunctella
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    [75] Heliocosma argyroleuca
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    4349249200001
    [76] Ethmia pusiella
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    [77] Depressaria pastinacella
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    [78] Agonopterix heracliana
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    [79] Perittia obscurepunctella
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    [80] Elachista argentella
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    5847747700001
    [81] Anchinia daphnella
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    [82] Cryptophasa rubescens
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    6447147100001
    [83] Scythris limbella
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    5647947900001
    [84] Diurnea fagella
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    [85] Oecophora bractella
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    [86] Pleurota bicostella
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    [87] Stathmopoda pedella
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    14738838800001
    [88] Pseudatemelia josephinae
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    [89] Lecithocera nigrana
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    [90] Crocanthes prasinopis
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    8145445400001
    [91] Batrachedra praeangusta
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    [92] Coleophora serratella
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    [93] Mompha conturbatella
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    [94] Hypatopa binotella
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    [95] Pterolonche inspersa
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    [96] Holcopogon bubulcellus
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    8844744700001
    [97] Anatiplora basiphaea
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    33819719700001
    [98] Oegoconia deauratella
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    4748848800001
    [99] Acria emarginella
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    11242342300001
    [100] Sorhagenia janiszewskae
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    4549049000001
    [101] Limnaecia phragmitella
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    4648948900001
    [102] Cosmopterix pulchrimella
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    4648948900001
    [103] Chrysoesthia drurella
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    4748848800001
    [104] Anacampsis populella
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    [105] Dichomeris juniperella
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    [106] Pexicopia malvella
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    [107] Homadaula anisocentra
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    [108] Homadaula myriospila
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    [109] Heteropsyche sp
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    6646946900001
    [110] Cyclotorna sp
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    14139439400001
    [111] Doratopteryx steniptera plumigera
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    33719819800001
    [112] Staphylinochorus flavida
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    [113] Megalopyge lanata
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    [114] Trosia obsolescens
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    32421121100001
    [115] Apoda limacodes
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    [116] Strigivenifera venata
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    [117] Doratifera vulnerans
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    [118] Dalcerides ingenita
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    [119] Anticrates suffusa
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    [120] Lactura pupula
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    [121] Heterogynis penella
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    [122] Adscita statices
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    6746846800001
    [123] Callizygaena sp.
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    31621921900001
    [124] Phauda mimica
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    37116416400001
    [125] Histia flabellicornis
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    [126] Chalcosia remota
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    11142442400001
    [127] Aglaope infausta
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    [128] Zygaena filipendulae
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    [129] Pryeria sinica
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    [130] Synechodes coniophora
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    [131] Phycodes minor
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    [132] Brachodes appendiculata
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    [133] Sagalassa valida
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    [134] Miscera triphaenoides
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    [135] Pennisetia hylaeiformis
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    4549049000001
    [136] Zenodoxus palmii
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    [137] Sesia apiformis
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    [138] Synanthedon scoliaeformis
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    [139] Paranthrene tabaniformis
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    [140] Paysandisia archon
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    5548048000001
    [141] Synemon magnifica
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    4549049000001
    [142] Meharia sp.
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    [143] Cossus cossus
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    4748848800001
    [144] Dyspessa ulula
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    7546046000001
    [145] Macrocyttara expressa
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    [146] Ptilomacra senex
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    [147] Phragmataecia castaneae
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    [148] Endoxyla secta
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    [149] Zeuzera pyrina
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    [150] Cossula magnifica
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    [151] Squamura
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    [152] Givira mucida
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    16037537500001
    [153] Archaeoses pentasema
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    [154] Idioses littleri
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    [155] Dudgeonea polyastra
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    [156] Tortrix viridana
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    [157] Aethes cnicana
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    [158] Exapate congelatella
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    [159] Aphelia paleana
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    [160] Eulia ministrana
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    [161] Olindia schumacherana
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    [162] Argyroploce mygindiana
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    [163] Cydia nigricana
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    [164] Choristis discotypa
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    [165] Millieria dolosalis
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    5947647600001
    [166] Prochoreutis sp.
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    [167] Choreutis pariana
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    [168] Anthophila fabriciana
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    [169] Brenthia pavonacella
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    [170] Wockia asperipunctella
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    [171] Urodus parvula
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    [172] Urod. nupponen
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    [173] Schreckensteinia festaliella
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    [174] Epermenia illigerella
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    [175] Phaulernis dentella
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    [176] Tineodes adactylalis
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    [177] Cenoloba obliteralis
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    [178] Tanycnema sp
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    [179] Pterotopteryx dodecadactyla
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    [180] Alucita hexadactyla
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    [181] Agdistis nr bennetii
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    [182] Ochyrotica breviapex
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    [183] Merrifieldia baliodactyla
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    [184] Stenoptilia veronicae
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    [185] Imma sp.
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    [186] Isonomeutis amauropa
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    [187] Phycomorpha metachrysa
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    [188] Phycomorpha prasinochroa
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    [189] Heterocrossa eriphylla
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    [190] Heterocrossa iophaea
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    [191] Carposina autologa
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    [192] Sosineura mimica
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    [193] Hyblaea puera fortissima
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    [194] Prodidactis mystica
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    [195] Thyris fenestrella
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    [196] Aglaopus pyrrhata
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    [197] Addaea subtessellata
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    [198] Rhodoneura terminalis
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    [199] Morova subfasciata
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    [200] Galleria mellonella
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    [201] Aphomia sociella
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    [202] Pyralis farinalis
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    [203] Aglossa pinguinalis
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    [204] Pococera gelidalis
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    [205] Ephestia kuehniella
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    [206] Eudonia truncicolella
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    [207] Scoparia ambigualis
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    [208] Crambus uliginosellus
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    [209] Euchromius ocellea
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    [210] Schoenobius gigantellus
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    [211] Musotima nitidalis
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    [212] Elophila nymphaeata
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    [213] Cynaeda dentalis
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    [214] Niphopyralis nivalis
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    [215] Evergestis forficalis
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    [216] Hellula undalis
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    [217] Eurrhypara hortulata
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    [218] Pleuroptya ruralis
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    [219] Mimallo amilia
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    [220] Cicinnus melsheimeri
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    [221] Lacosoma chiridota
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    [222] Colussa varia
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    [223] Poecilocampa populi
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    [224] Lasiocampa quercus
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    [225] Panacela lewinae
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    [226] Bombyx mori
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    [227] Endromis versicolora
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    [228] Aglia tau
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    7745845800001
    [229] Carthaea saturnioides
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    7446146100001
    [230] Lemonia dumi
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    7546046000001
    [231] Brahmaea japonica
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    29124424400001
    [232] Laothoe populi
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    6946646600001
    [233] Sphinx ligustri
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    6846746700001
    [234] Hyles gallii
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    6746846800001
    [235] Acherontia atropos
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    6646946900001
    [236] Axia margarita vaulogeri
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    6247347300001
    [237] Pterothysanus sp
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    31522022000001
    [238] Pterodecta felderi
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    6147447400001
    [239] Macrosoma semiermis
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    15238338300001
    [240] Hasora chromus discolor
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    22031531500001
    [241] Pyrgus malvae
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    6447147100001
    [242] Carterocephalus silvicola
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    17536036000001
    [243] Trapezites symmomus luteus
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    9144444400001
    [244] Thymelicus lineola
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    6247347300001
    [245] Baronia brevicornis
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    31522022000001
    [246] Parnassius apollo
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    6646946900001
    [247] Leptidea sinapis
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    7146446400001
    [248] Pieris rapae
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    8545045000001
    [249] Curetia acuta
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    33120420400001
    [250] Favonius quercus
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    8844744700001
    [251] Hamearis lucina
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    8944644600001
    [252] Libythea celtis
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    31322222200001
    [253] Argynnis paphia
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    8644944900001
    [254] Nymphalis polychloros
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    8644944900001
    [255] Limenitis populi
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    8045545500001
    [256] Charaxes jasius
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    18634934900001
    [257] Apatura iris
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    8345245200001
    [258] Aphantopus hyperantus
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    8545045000001
    [259] Danaus plexippus
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    8045545500001
    [260] Epicopeia mencia
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    10543043000001
    [261] Psychostrophia melanargia
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    14938638600001
    [262] Thyatira batis
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    4648948900001
    [263] Cyclidia sp. substigmaria
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    31821721700001
    [264] Drepana curvatula
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    5048548500001
    [265] Cilix glaucatus
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    5248348300001
    [266] Hypsidia robinsoni
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    31621921900001
    [267] Sematura luna
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    34319219200001
    [268] Auzea rufifrontata
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    34618918900001
    [269] Lobogethes interrupta
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    6447147100001
    [270] Urapteroides astheniata
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    32121421400001
    [271] Urania leilus
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    34019519500001
    [272] Acropteris nanula
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    6846746700001
    [273] Alcides zodiaca
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    22630930900001
    [274] Archiearis parthenias
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    4848748700001
    [275] Biston betularius
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    4049549500001
    [276] Lomaspilis marginata
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    4049549500001
    [277] Oenochroma vinaria
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    4549049000001
    [278] Geometra papilionaria
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    4648948900001
    [279] Crypsiphona ocultaria
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    5148448400001
    [280] Cyclophora punctaria
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    5148448400001
    [281] Scopula immorata
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    4648948900001
    [282] Larentia clavaria
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    4449149100001
    [283] Trichopteryx carpinata
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    4848748700001
    [284] Oenosandra boisduvalii
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    6846746700001
    [285] Doa ampla
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    4948648600001
    [286] Thaumetopoea processionea
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    8245345300001
    [287] Clostera pigra
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    6147447400001
    [288] Notodonta dromedarius
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    4648948900001
    [289] Phalera bucephala
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    7146446400001
    [290] Craniophora ligustri
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    3949649600001
    [291] Phalaenoides tristifica
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    4549049000001
    [292] Cryphia raptricula
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    4049549500001
    [293] Polypogon strigilatus
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    4648948900001
    [294] Schrankia costaestrigalis
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    32521021000001
    [295] Rivula sericealis
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    4948648600001
    [296] Parascotia fuliginaria
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    3550050000001
    [297] Catocala sponsa
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    3649949900001
    [298] Scoliopteryx libatrix
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    3649949900001
    [299] Asota caricae
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    31022522500001
    [300] Hypena proboscidalis
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    4049549500001
    [301] Lophoptera hemithyris
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    30922622600001
    [302] Eutelia adulatrix
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    31522022000001
    [303] Penicillaria jocosatrix
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    20732832800001
    [304] Abrostola tripartita
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    3849749700001
    [305] Acontia lucida
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    3550050000001
    [306] Panthea coenobita
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    6047547500001
    [307] Deltote uncula
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    3649949900001
    [308] Cucullia umbratica
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    4748848800001
    [309] Amphipyra perflua
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    3749849800001
    [310] Brachionycha nubeculosa
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    4449149100001
    [311] Diloba caeruleocephala
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    7446146100001
    [312] Pyrrhia umbra
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    3749849800001
    [313] Apamea crenata
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    3849749700001
    [314] Noctua fimbriata
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    3550050000001
    [315] Lymantria monacha
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    7046546500001
    [316] Nola aerugula
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    6047547500001
    [317] Pseudoips prasinanus
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    4049549500001
    [318] Arctia caja
    Last Modified in 05/29/15
    6047547500001


    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views16176
    Project overview2132
    Matrix views1423Matrix landing page (1246 views); Ditrysia matrix (177 views);
    Media views2454Media search (2144 views); M406145 (310 views);
    Specimen list1079
    Taxon list8599
    Bibliography489




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project298
    Matrix downloads24Ditrysia matrix (24 downloads);
    Project downloads274