Project 2184: Sergei Tarasov, Fernando Vaz-de-Mello, Frank-Thorsten Krell, Dimitar Dimitrov. 2016. A Review and Phylogeny of Scarabaeine Dung Beetle Fossils (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae), with the Description of Two Canthochilum Species from Dominican Amber. PeerJ.
Specimen: † Canthochilum philipsivieorum (unvouchered)

Abstract

Despite the increasing rate of systematic research on scarabaeine dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae), their fossil record has remained largely unrevised. In this paper, we review all 33 named scarabaeine fossils and describe two new species from Dominican amber (Canthochilum alleni sp.n., Canthochilum philipsivieorum sp.n.). We provide a catalogue of all fossil Scarabaeinae and evaluate their assignment to this subfamily, based primarily on the original descriptions but also, where possible, by examining the type specimens. We suggest that only 21 fossil taxa can be reliably assigned to the Scarabaeinae, while the remaining 14 should be treated as doubtful Scarabaeinae. The doubtful scarabaeines include the two oldest dung beetle fossils known from the Cretaceous and we suggest excluding them from any assessments of the minimum age of scarabaeine dung beetles. The earliest reliably described scarabaeine fossil appears to be Lobateuchus parisii, known from Oise amber (France), which shifts the minimal age of the Scarabaeinae to the Eocene (53 Ma). We scored the best-preserved fossils, namely Lobateuchus and the two Canthochilum species described herein, into the character matrix used in a recent morphology-based study of dung beetles, and then inferred their phylogenetic relationships with Bayesian and parsimony methods. All analyses yielded consistent phylogenies where the two fossil Canthochilum are placed in a clade with the extant species of Canthochilum, and Lobateuchus is recovered in a clade with the extant genera Ateuchus and Aphengium. Additionally, we evaluated the distribution of dung beetle fossils in the light of current global dung beetle phylogenetic hypotheses, geological time and biogeography. The presence of only extant genera in the late Oligocene and all later records suggests that the main present-day dung beetle lineages had already been established by the late Oligocene–mid Miocene.


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Project DOI: 10.7934/P2184, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P2184
This project containsMatrices
  • 26 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 114 Taxa
  • 27 Specimens
  • 205 Characters
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Total scored cells: 22946
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Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 412
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Total unordered/ordered characters:205/0
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MorphoBank Project 2184


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    Sergei Tarasov
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 05/02/16
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    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M23360' (114 Taxa)

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    [1] Aphodius erraticus
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    [2] Podotenus fulviventris
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    [3] Aulonocnemis crassecostata
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    [4] Manjarivolo sp
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    [5] Coptorhina auspicata
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    [6] Delopleurus sp
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    [7] Frankenbergerius armatus
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    [8] Sarophorus costatus
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    [9] Odontoloma sp
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    [10] Nebulasilvius insularis
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    [11] Endroedyolus paradoxus
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    [12] Dicranocara deschodti
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    [13] Byrrhidium namaquensis
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    [14] Paraphytus sp
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    [15] Epirinus sp
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    [16] Neosisyphus sp
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    [17] Macroderes mutilans
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    [18] Xinidium dentilabris
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    [19] Pedaria sp
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    [20] Gyronotus carinatus
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    [21] Anachalcos convexus
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    [22] Hammondantus psammophilus
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    [23] Pycnopanelus krikkeni
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    [24] Janssensantus pauliani
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    [25] Aphengoecus multiserratus
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    [26] Bohepilissus sp
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    [27] Circellium bacchus
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    [28] Dwesasilvasedis medinae
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    [29] Coptodactyla nitida
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    [30] Amphistomus calcaratus
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    [31] Aulacopris maximus
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    [32] Canthonosoma macleayi
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    [33] Boletoscapter cornutus
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    [34] Gen. nov. sp. nov.
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    [35] Cephalodesmius armiger
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    [36] Coproecus hemisphaericus
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    [37] Demarziella interrupta
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    [38] Diorygopyx tibialis
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    [39] Mentophilus hollandiae
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    [40] Onthobium gutierrez
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    [41] Pseudonthobium sinuatotibiale
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    [42] Tesserodon erratum
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    [43] Saphobius sp
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    [44] Bdelyrus seminudus
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    [45] Tesserodoniella elguetai
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    [46] Canthonella silphoides
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    [47] Cryptocanthon paradoxus
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    [48] Paracanthon sp sp n
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    [49] Streblopus opatroides
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    [50] Zonocopris gibbicollis
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    [51] Genieridium margareteae
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    [52] Onoreidium howdeni
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    [53] Trichillum pauliani
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    [54] Scatimus strandi
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    [55] Aphengium cupreum
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    [56] Agamopus lampros
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    [57] Agamopus viridis
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    [58] Canthidium bokermanni
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    [59] Chalcocopris hesperus
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    [60] Dichotomius sp
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    [61] Dichotomius sericeus
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    [62] Homocopris torulosus
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    [63] Ontherus appendiculatus
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    [64] Uroxys latesulcatus
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    [65] Uroxys epipleuralis
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    [66] Uroxys pauliani
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    [67] Bdelyropsis bowditchi
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    [68] Canthon virens
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    [69] Malagoniella yucateca
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    [70] Megathoposoma candezei
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    [71] Scybalophagus rugosus
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    [72] Deltochilum sp
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    [73] Scybalocanthon nigriceps
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    [74] Hansreia sp
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    [75] Silvicanthon bridarollii
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    [76] Tetraechma sanguineomaculata
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    [77] Anomiopus edmondsi
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    [78] Scatonomus fasciculatus
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    [79] Sinapisoma sp
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    [80] Heliocopris sp
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    [81] Catharsius sp
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    [82] Metacatharsius sp
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    [83] Copris sp
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    [84] Pseudopedaria grossa
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    [85] Microcopris sp
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    [86] Gromphas aeruginosa
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    [87] Coprophanaeus telamon
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    [88] Oruscatus davus
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    [89] Phanaeus splendidulus
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    [90] Ennearabdus lobocephalus
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    [91] Eucranium arachnoides
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    [92] Glyphoderus monticola
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    [93] Eurysternus hamaticollis
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    [94] Pachysoma aesculapius
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    [95] Scarabaeus aegyptiorum
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    [96] Paragymnopleurus sp
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    [97] Gymnopleurus leei
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    [98] Epactoides sp1
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    [99] Epactoides sp2
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    [100] Ochicanthon sp
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    [101] Apotolamprus quadrimaculatus
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    [102] Arachnodes sp
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    [103] Tanzanolus sp
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    [104] Onthophagus avocetta
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    [105] Helictopleurus quadripunctatus
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    [106] Bubas bison
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    [107] Onitis sp
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    [108] Ateuchus squalidus
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    [109] Ateuchus histeroides
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    [110] † Lobateuchus parisii
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    [111] Canthochilum tureyra
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    [112] Canthochilum oakleyi
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    [113] † Canthochilum alleni
    Last Modified in 05/30/15
    124818100001
    [114] † Canthochilum philipsivieorum
    Last Modified in 10/15/15
    125808000001


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