Project 2189: Allison Y. Hsiang,Daniel J. Field,Timothy H. Webster,Adam D. B. Behlke,Matthew B. Davis,Rachel A. Racicot,Jacques A. Gauthier. 2015. The origin of snakes: revealing the ecology, behavior, and evolutionary history of early snakes using genomics, phenomics, and the fossil record. BMC Evolutionary Biology. 15 (87).
Specimen: Loxocemus bicolor (FMNH/104800)

Abstract

The highly derived morphology and astounding diversity of snakes has long inspired debate regarding the ecological and evolutionary origin of both the snake total-group (Pan-Serpentes) and crown snakes (Serpentes). Although speculation abounds on the ecology, behavior, and provenance of the earliest snakes, a rigorous, clade-wide analysis of snake origins has yet to be attempted, in part due to a dearth of adequate paleontological data on early stem snakes. Here, we present the first comprehensive analytical reconstruction of the ancestor of crown snakes and the ancestor of the snake total-group, as inferred using multiple methods of ancestral state reconstruction. We use a combined-data approach that includes new information from the fossil record on extinct crown snakes, new data on the anatomy of the stem snakes Najash rionegrina, Dinilysia patagonica, and Coniophis precedens, and a deeper understanding of the distribution of phenotypic apomorphies among the major clades of fossil and Recent snakes. Additionally, we infer time-calibrated phylogenies using both new ‘tip-dating’ and traditional node-based approaches, providing new insights on temporal patterns in the early evolutionary history of snakes.


Read the article »

Article DOI: 10.1186/s12862-015-0358-5

Project DOI: 10.7934/P2189, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P2189
This project containsMatrices
  • 2 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 74 Taxa
  • 2 Specimens
  • 777 Characters


Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 33788
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 777
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 1974
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:558/219
Currently Viewing:
MorphoBank Project 2189

    This research
    supported by



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    MorphoBank Curator
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 06/12/15
    74227770033788
    (33788, 0, 0)
    000
    Maureen Admin
    Full membership
    Last logged in 06/04/15
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    Allison Hsiang
    Full membership
    Last logged in 06/11/15
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M23369' (73 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] Shinisaurus crocodilurus
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    14763063000003
    [2] Xenosaurus platyceps
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    21756056000003
    [3] Xenosaurus grandis
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    14963162800003
    [4] Pseudopus apodus
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    18859158900003
    [5] † Peltosaurus granulosus
    Last Modified in 06/12/15
    30647247100003
    [6] † Helodermoides tuberculatus
    Last Modified in 06/12/15
    40737137000003
    [7] Celestus enneagrammus
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    15662362100003
    [8] Elgaria multicarinata
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    13064964700003
    [9] † Proplatynotia longirostrata
    Last Modified in 06/12/15
    49528228100003
    [10] † Gobiderma pulchrum
    Last Modified in 06/12/15
    35542242200003
    [11] Heloderma horridum
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    16161661600003
    [12] Heloderma suspectum
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    16561661200003
    [13] Lanthanotus borneensis
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    16161661600003
    [14] † Saniwa
    Last Modified in 06/12/15
    31845945900003
    [15] Varanus salvator
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    16461661300003
    [16] Varanus acanthurus
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    15762162000003
    [17] Varanus exanthematicus
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    15862161900003
    [18] † Coniophis precedens
    Last Modified in 06/12/15
    683949400003
    [19] † Najash rionegrina
    Last Modified in 06/12/15
    60017717700003
    [20] † Dinilysia patagonica
    Last Modified in 06/12/15
    36940840800003
    [21] Rena dulcis
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    32545545200003
    [22] Typhlops jamaicensis
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    39638338100003
    [23] Liotyphlops albirostris
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    39638338100003
    [24] Typhlophis squamosus
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    42235635500003
    [25] † Sanajeh indicus
    Last Modified in 06/12/15
    698797900003
    [26] † Wonambi naracoortensis
    Last Modified in 06/12/15
    57620120100003
    [27] † Yurlunggur camfieldensis
    Last Modified in 06/12/15
    54723023000003
    [28] Anilius scytale
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    26151851600003
    [29] Cylindrophis ruffus
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    23754154000003
    [30] Anomochilus leonardi
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    31446346300003
    [31] Uropeltis melanogaster
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    32145745600003
    [32] † Haasiophis terrasanctus
    Last Modified in 06/12/15
    47830029900003
    [33] † Eupodophis descouensis
    Last Modified in 06/12/15
    60817016900003
    [34] † Pachyrhachis problematicus
    Last Modified in 06/12/15
    55622222100003
    [35] Xenopeltis unicolor
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    26151751600003
    [36] Loxocemus bicolor
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    23254654500003
    [37] Casarea dussumieri
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    26651151100003
    [38] Xenophidion acanthognathus
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    28948848800003
    [39] Exiliboa placata
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    29548448200003
    [40] Ungaliophis continentalis
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    29348848400003
    [41] Lichanura trivirgata
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    27750250000003
    [42] Calabaria reinhardtii
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    26551251200003
    [43] Eryx colubrinus
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    25852151900003
    [44] Epicrates striatus
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    25552652200003
    [45] Boa constrictor
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    24953552800003
    [46] Aspidites melanocephalus
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    26851350900003
    [47] Python molurus
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    24653653100003
    [48] Trachyboa boulengeri
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    27550350200003
    [49] Tropidophis haetianus
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    24753453000003
    [50] † Kataria anisodonta
    Last Modified in 06/12/15
    59218518500003
    [51] Xenodermus javanicus
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    27150850600003
    [52] Acrochordus granulatus
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    29448448300003
    [53] Pareas hamptoni
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    30347547400003
    [54] Lycophidion capense
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    30247547500003
    [55] Aparallactus werneri
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    29048948700003
    [56] Atractaspis irregularis
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    35942041800003
    [57] Azemiops feae
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    31546446200003
    [58] Causus rhombeatus
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    32945144800003
    [59] Daboia russelli
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    31646446100003
    [60] Bothrops asper
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    31346746400003
    [61] Agkistrodon contortrix
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    30347847400003
    [62] Lachesis muta
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    31446746300003
    [63] Micrurus fulvius
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    29948147800003
    [64] Naja naja
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    28549549200003
    [65] Laticauda colubrina
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    31146846600003
    [66] Notechis scutatus
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    29848047900003
    [67] Natrix natrix
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    28249749500003
    [68] Thamnophis marcianus
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    27750250000003
    [69] Amphiesma stolata
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    28049849700003
    [70] Afronatrix anoscopus
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    29947947800003
    [71] Xenochrophis piscator
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    28349549400003
    [72] Lampropeltis getula
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    27650550100003
    [73] Coluber constrictor
    Last Modified in 06/04/15
    26951250800003


    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views16198
    Project overview2381
    Matrix views1376Matrix landing page (1334 views); The origin of snakes: revealing the ecology, behavior, and evolutionary history of early snakes using genomics, phenomics, and the fossil record (42 views);
    Media views3678Media search (2890 views); M378118 (391 views); M378117 (397 views);
    Bibliography518
    Specimen list1478
    Taxon list6767




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project296
    Matrix downloads7The origin of snakes: revealing the ecology, behavior, and evolutionary history of early snakes using genomics, phenomics, and the fossil record (7 downloads);
    Project downloads289