Project 2192: N. V. Whelan, E. E. Strong. 2015. Morphology, molecules, and taxonomy: extreme incongruence in pleurocerids (Gastropoda, Cerithioidea, Pleuroceridae). Zoologica Scripta. 45 (1):62-87.
Specimen: Leptoxis ampla (USNM/LAHAP0024:1194257)
View: Aperture View of Shells

Abstract

Pronounced mitochondrial heterogeneity within putative species of Pleuroceridae has prevented meaningful systematic revisions of this critically imperiled freshwater family. Previous studies have demonstrated that this mitochondrial diversity often produces polyphyletic species on mitochondrial gene trees, but its significance is unclear. Hypotheses advanced to explain this pattern have included cryptic species, retained ancestral polymorphisms, and introgression; other possible explanations such as doubly-uniparental inheritance or the presence of pseudogenes have not been given due consideration. Previous analyses have not included adequate sampling, neither in terms of number of individuals nor in geographic coverage, to adequately test any of these hypotheses. In order to fully characterize mitochondrial heterogeneity in pleurocerids and robustly assess possible causal explanations, we collected 239 individuals representing four putative species from seven sites and sequenced the COI and 16S rRNA mitochondrial genes and the H3 nuclear gene for all individuals. We also used whole genome shotgun sequencing to construct and annotate a mitochondrial genome for one individual. Characters with demonstrated utility in morphospecies delineation of gastropods (head-foot coloration, shell and radular morphology, pallial oviduct anatomy) were examined for a subset of individuals to determine if morphology co-varied by haplotype clade. We found pronounced mitochondrial heterogeneity at both the population- and species-level in three of the species examined, but our data reject paralogous nuclear copies of mitochondrial genes (NUMTs) and doubly uniparental inheritance as causal mechanisms, and there was no evidence of cryptic diversity. Mutation rates were found to differ significantly among mitochondrial lineages, and population genetic statistics revealed a signature of balancing selection that could be acting to maintain this diversity. Although questions remain concerning the precise cause(s) of intraspecific mitochondrial diversity in pleurocerids, nuclear and/or genomic data, combined with anatomical and life history investigations in an integrative phylogenetic context, is the most promising avenue for resolving pleurocerid systematics.


Read the article »

Article DOI: 10.1111/zsc.12139

Project DOI: 10.7934/P2192, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P2192
This project contains
  • 929 Media
  • 7 Taxa
  • 240 Specimens
Total size of project's media files: 1.15G

Download Project SDD File
Currently Viewing:
MorphoBank Project 2192
  • Creation Date:
    12 June 2015
  • Publication Date:
    03 September 2015
  • Project views: 146306

    This research
    supported by

    Authors' Institutions

    • National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

    • University of Alabama



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media
    Nathan Whelan
    Project Administrator
    7240929


    Project has no matrices defined.



    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views146306
    Project overview2390
    Media views77290Media search (4194 views); M378382 (456 views); M378393 (387 views); M378414 (421 views); M378412 (414 views); M378355 (487 views); M378435 (388 views); M378398 (394 views); M378379 (435 views); M378401 (382 views); M378406 (437 views); M378419 (422 views); M378388 (445 views); M378439 (437 views); M378358 (469 views); M378351 (490 views); M378392 (401 views); M378405 (431 views); M378430 (419 views); M378346 (466 views); M378441 (415 views); M378426 (433 views); M378344 (421 views); M378417 (379 views); M378420 (422 views); M378402 (395 views); M378428 (425 views); M378359 (489 views); M378424 (432 views); M378403 (393 views); M378427 (415 views); M378369 (442 views); M378390 (438 views); M378362 (447 views); M378399 (408 views); M378425 (383 views); M378365 (454 views); M378381 (428 views); M378391 (429 views); M378386 (438 views); M378372 (444 views); M378383 (451 views); M378354 (447 views); M378434 (403 views); M378413 (440 views); M378411 (388 views); M378444 (404 views); M378395 (428 views); M378375 (425 views); M378384 (435 views); M378422 (428 views); M378387 (422 views); M378345 (454 views); M378396 (418 views); M378374 (430 views); M378415 (435 views); M378440 (405 views); M378442 (442 views); M378350 (483 views); M378373 (466 views); M378410 (401 views); M378363 (456 views); M378371 (424 views); M378348 (497 views); M378418 (433 views); M378409 (461 views); M378370 (447 views); M378397 (429 views); M378347 (438 views); M378353 (443 views); M378377 (463 views); M378368 (453 views); M378385 (476 views); M378376 (453 views); M378429 (374 views); M378378 (455 views); M378352 (434 views); M378400 (407 views); M378407 (429 views); M378421 (387 views); M378433 (389 views); M378357 (492 views); M378356 (453 views); M378408 (455 views); M378432 (402 views); M378380 (436 views); M378349 (462 views); M378438 (389 views); M378394 (396 views); M378364 (475 views); M378423 (408 views); M378367 (482 views); M378443 (417 views); M378437 (387 views); M378361 (462 views); M378431 (455 views); M378436 (420 views); M378416 (400 views); M378389 (435 views); M378360 (481 views); M378366 (459 views); M378451 (245 views); M378536 (197 views); M378454 (255 views); M378450 (243 views); M378448 (250 views); M378447 (203 views); M378530 (195 views); M378512 (243 views); M378475 (226 views); M378503 (232 views); M378472 (212 views); M378468 (210 views); M378500 (213 views); M378484 (221 views); M378540 (248 views); M378461 (243 views); M378499 (197 views); M378527 (227 views); M378471 (242 views); M378532 (230 views); M378539 (245 views); M378480 (244 views); M378474 (216 views); M378513 (214 views); M378542 (244 views); M378469 (240 views); M378521 (232 views); M378483 (176 views); M378535 (228 views); M378453 (219 views); M378458 (244 views); M378465 (201 views); M378488 (216 views); M378462 (216 views); M378455 (212 views); M378508 (251 views); M378452 (228 views); M378505 (228 views); M378538 (233 views); M378515 (260 views); M378457 (231 views); M378478 (223 views); M378446 (206 views); M378520 (181 views); M378511 (243 views); M378492 (219 views); M378534 (252 views); M378544 (264 views); M378506 (227 views); M378510 (200 views); M378543 (202 views); M378517 (216 views); M378489 (236 views); M378518 (224 views); M378516 (233 views); M378525 (242 views); M378502 (218 views); M378526 (220 views); M378523 (239 views); M378485 (229 views); M378491 (242 views); M378522 (201 views); M378524 (235 views); M378464 (179 views); M378501 (220 views); M378476 (227 views); M378460 (224 views); M378490 (198 views); M378482 (232 views); M378493 (240 views); M378504 (188 views); M378496 (245 views); M378533 (184 views); M378473 (236 views); M378498 (211 views); M378487 (230 views); M378486 (195 views); M378643 (2 views); M378661 (3 views); M378638 (2 views); M378635 (2 views); M378659 (2 views); M378582 (232 views); M378621 (5 views); M378596 (2 views); M378662 (3 views); M378636 (2 views); M378445 (236 views); M378449 (247 views); M378514 (256 views); M378528 (220 views); M378466 (219 views); M378481 (238 views); M378467 (252 views); M378477 (229 views); M378529 (243 views); M378470 (215 views); M378497 (232 views); M378463 (216 views); M378456 (208 views); M378541 (195 views); M378459 (207 views); M378495 (215 views); M378537 (245 views); M378519 (232 views); M378479 (202 views); M378494 (227 views); M378531 (247 views); M378507 (222 views); M378509 (254 views); M378584 (247 views); M378547 (196 views); M378603 (2 views); M378597 (3 views); M378671 (2 views); M378637 (2 views); M378644 (4 views); M378648 (4 views); M378672 (2 views); M378614 (4 views); M378665 (3 views); M378588 (214 views); M378629 (5 views); M378590 (4 views); M378581 (252 views); M378626 (3 views); M378663 (3 views); M378613 (3 views); M378622 (3 views); M378598 (2 views); M378664 (2 views); M378639 (2 views); M378657 (3 views); M378640 (3 views); M378601 (2 views); M378623 (3 views); M378651 (4 views); M378653 (2 views); M378560 (224 views); M378602 (4 views); M378552 (250 views); M378549 (271 views); M378551 (240 views); M378600 (4 views); M378604 (5 views); M378666 (2 views); M378616 (3 views); M378554 (225 views); M378642 (2 views); M378583 (215 views); M378660 (4 views); M378656 (2 views); M378606 (2 views); M378559 (241 views); M378632 (3 views); M378641 (4 views); M378650 (2 views); M378548 (249 views); M378595 (2 views); M378553 (200 views); M378592 (3 views); M378654 (3 views); M378628 (4 views); M378599 (3 views); M378558 (256 views); M378670 (4 views); M378627 (3 views); M378550 (259 views); M378652 (2 views); M378630 (2 views); M378647 (2 views); M378545 (203 views); M378615 (3 views); M378645 (3 views); M378649 (2 views); M378605 (3 views); M378585 (236 views); M378611 (2 views); M378593 (4 views); M378546 (244 views); M378586 (206 views); M378589 (233 views); M378612 (4 views); M378624 (2 views); M378711 (3 views); M378682 (3 views); M378631 (2 views); M378668 (2 views); M378741 (4 views); M378724 (4 views); M378694 (4 views); M378728 (4 views); M378673 (4 views); M378958 (1 view); M378755 (4 views); M378753 (3 views); M378765 (4 views); M378706 (4 views); M378743 (3 views); M378771 (3 views); M378732 (4 views); M378756 (13 views); M378758 (4 views); M378726 (4 views); M378675 (4 views); M378704 (3 views); M378692 (3 views); M378757 (4 views); M378716 (4 views); M378717 (4 views); M378730 (4 views); M378609 (3 views); M378591 (3 views); M378594 (5 views); M378557 (218 views); M378935 (1 view); M378556 (194 views); M378610 (2 views); M378655 (6 views); M378667 (2 views); M378555 (231 views); M378669 (2 views); M378625 (2 views); M378658 (3 views); M378646 (3 views); M378587 (188 views); M378744 (4 views); M378721 (3 views); M379061 (2 views); M378701 (3 views); M378676 (3 views); M378723 (3 views); M378720 (3 views); M378698 (3 views); M378747 (4 views); M378684 (4 views); M378745 (5 views); M378715 (3 views); M378719 (3 views); M378683 (2 views); M378696 (4 views); M378680 (3 views); M378746 (3 views); M378703 (3 views); M378699 (3 views); M378674 (3 views); M378769 (4 views); M378681 (3 views); M378772 (4 views); M378708 (4 views); M378760 (2 views); M378731 (3 views); M378764 (5 views); M378736 (3 views); M378722 (4 views); M378762 (4 views); M378770 (4 views); M378737 (4 views); M378712 (3 views); M378677 (3 views); M378754 (4 views); M378700 (3 views); M378679 (4 views); M378705 (3 views); M378710 (4 views); M378678 (3 views); M378750 (3 views); M378702 (3 views); M378759 (3 views); M378718 (4 views); M378693 (3 views); M378709 (4 views); M378729 (3 views); M378713 (3 views); M378766 (3 views); M378697 (4 views); M378738 (4 views); M378685 (3 views); M378735 (3 views); M378767 (4 views); M378687 (6 views); M378688 (5 views); M378733 (6 views); M378739 (3 views); M378725 (4 views); M378748 (3 views); M378751 (4 views); M378690 (4 views); M378691 (4 views); M378740 (4 views); M378695 (3 views); M378761 (3 views); M378727 (3 views); M378707 (4 views); M378689 (4 views); M378742 (4 views); M378686 (3 views); M378734 (4 views); M378752 (4 views); M378768 (3 views); M378749 (3 views); M378763 (3 views); M378714 (4 views); M378855 (2 views); M378810 (2 views); M378825 (2 views); M378784 (1 view); M378797 (2 views); M378836 (2 views); M378848 (2 views); M378794 (2 views); M378806 (2 views); M378795 (2 views); M378835 (6 views); M378868 (2 views); M378796 (2 views); M378790 (3 views); M378852 (6 views); M378859 (2 views); M378779 (2 views); M378866 (2 views); M378815 (2 views); M378776 (2 views); M378830 (2 views); M378862 (2 views); M378858 (2 views); M378863 (2 views); M378861 (2 views); M378801 (2 views); M378871 (2 views); M378803 (2 views); M378773 (3 views); M378832 (2 views); M378814 (2 views); M378829 (2 views); M378826 (2 views); M378819 (2 views); M378846 (2 views); M378817 (2 views); M378865 (2 views); M378841 (2 views); M378798 (2 views); M378783 (2 views); M378847 (2 views); M378791 (2 views); M378823 (2 views); M378834 (3 views); M378839 (2 views); M378792 (3 views); M378781 (2 views); M378804 (2 views); M378778 (2 views); M378800 (2 views); M378787 (2 views); M378853 (2 views); M378828 (11 views); M378857 (2 views); M378820 (2 views); M378782 (2 views); M378864 (2 views); M378860 (2 views); M378793 (2 views); M378812 (2 views); M378854 (2 views); M378856 (15 views); M378818 (2 views); M378802 (7 views); M378805 (2 views); M378838 (2 views); M378840 (2 views); M378788 (3 views); M378824 (2 views); M378785 (2 views); M378774 (2 views); M378844 (2 views); M378831 (2 views); M378833 (2 views); M378872 (2 views); M378786 (2 views); M378913 (1 view); M378874 (1 view); M378919 (1 view); M378967 (1 view); M378884 (1 view); M378877 (1 view); M378907 (2 views); M378970 (1 view); M378966 (1 view); M378928 (1 view); M378937 (1 view); M378968 (1 view); M378947 (1 view); M378867 (2 views); M378869 (2 views); M378843 (2 views); M378822 (2 views); M378808 (2 views); M378809 (2 views); M378851 (2 views); M378777 (2 views); M378816 (2 views); M378799 (2 views); M378789 (2 views); M378813 (2 views); M378827 (2 views); M378780 (4 views); M378845 (2 views); M378807 (2 views); M378849 (2 views); M378842 (2 views); M378775 (2 views); M378837 (2 views); M378870 (2 views); M378811 (2 views); M378821 (2 views); M378850 (3 views); M378909 (1 view); M378924 (1 view); M378880 (1 view); M378950 (1 view); M378899 (1 view); M378963 (1 view); M378938 (1 view); M378952 (1 view); M378939 (1 view); M378917 (1 view); M378878 (1 view); M378934 (1 view); M378876 (1 view); M378894 (1 view); M378944 (1 view); M378933 (1 view); M378945 (1 view); M378918 (1 view); M378883 (1 view); M378896 (1 view); M378948 (1 view); M378903 (1 view); M378873 (1 view); M378957 (1 view); M378914 (3 views); M378953 (1 view); M378941 (1 view); M378954 (1 view); M378906 (1 view); M378940 (1 view); M378926 (2 views); M378922 (1 view); M378962 (1 view); M378965 (1 view); M379008 (2 views); M379027 (2 views); M378990 (2 views); M379057 (2 views); M378993 (2 views); M379024 (2 views); M379045 (2 views); M379038 (2 views); M378998 (2 views); M379032 (3 views); M379055 (2 views); M378879 (1 view); M378902 (1 view); M378893 (1 view); M378892 (12 views); M378886 (10 views); M378927 (1 view); M378905 (1 view); M378961 (1 view); M378885 (1 view); M378949 (1 view); M378956 (1 view); M378910 (1 view); M378943 (1 view); M378923 (2 views); M378959 (1 view); M378932 (8 views); M378964 (1 view); M378897 (2 views); M378946 (1 view); M378895 (1 view); M378891 (1 view); M378904 (1 view); M378887 (1 view); M378951 (1 view); M378925 (1 view); M378890 (1 view); M378875 (1 view); M378900 (1 view); M378942 (1 view); M378901 (1 view); M378936 (1 view); M378930 (1 view); M378889 (1 view); M378960 (1 view); M378881 (2 views); M378882 (1 view); M378916 (1 view); M378912 (1 view); M378972 (1 view); M378921 (2 views); M378888 (1 view); M378911 (1 view); M378920 (1 view); M378929 (1 view); M378931 (1 view); M378969 (1 view); M378908 (1 view); M378915 (1 view); M378898 (1 view); M378971 (1 view); M378955 (2 views); M379063 (3 views); M379066 (3 views); M379058 (2 views); M379042 (2 views); M379048 (3 views); M379068 (2 views); M378973 (2 views); M379021 (2 views); M378974 (2 views); M379007 (2 views); M379014 (2 views); M379028 (2 views); M378981 (2 views); M379036 (2 views); M378996 (2 views); M379064 (3 views); M379062 (2 views); M378978 (2 views); M379044 (4 views); M378983 (2 views); M379010 (2 views); M379013 (2 views); M378975 (6 views); M379056 (3 views); M379030 (2 views); M379072 (2 views); M378986 (2 views); M379059 (4 views); M378999 (2 views); M379046 (2 views); M379026 (2 views); M379041 (2 views); M379053 (2 views); M379001 (2 views); M379035 (2 views); M379011 (2 views); M378987 (2 views); M379070 (2 views); M379005 (2 views); M379012 (2 views); M379019 (2 views); M379065 (2 views); M379051 (2 views); M378976 (2 views); M378989 (2 views); M379049 (2 views); M379052 (3 views); M378995 (2 views); M378984 (11 views); M379009 (2 views); M378991 (2 views); M378997 (2 views); M379029 (2 views); M378977 (2 views); M379047 (2 views); M378980 (2 views); M379040 (2 views); M379071 (2 views); M379060 (2 views); M379017 (6 views); M379067 (2 views); M378979 (2 views); M379069 (2 views); M379022 (2 views); M378985 (2 views); M379031 (3 views); M379039 (3 views); M379016 (2 views); M378988 (2 views); M379002 (2 views); M379004 (13 views); M378994 (2 views); M378982 (2 views); M379023 (2 views); M379054 (2 views); M379084 (1 view); M379094 (1 view); M379159 (1 view); M379025 (2 views); M379018 (2 views); M379033 (2 views); M379006 (2 views); M379034 (2 views); M379000 (4 views); M378992 (2 views); M379037 (2 views); M379020 (2 views); M379043 (2 views); M379003 (3 views); M379015 (2 views); M379050 (2 views); M379172 (1 view); M379078 (1 view); M379158 (1 view); M379157 (1 view); M379143 (1 view); M379163 (1 view); M379176 (1 view); M379080 (1 view); M379128 (2 views); M379083 (1 view); M379141 (1 view); M379168 (1 view); M379178 (1 view); M379108 (1 view); M379149 (1 view); M379079 (1 view); M379151 (1 view); M379121 (1 view); M379130 (1 view); M379135 (1 view); M379156 (1 view); M379173 (1 view); M379112 (1 view); M379122 (1 view); M379104 (1 view); M379114 (1 view); M379161 (1 view); M379133 (2 views); M379169 (1 view); M379180 (1 view); M379113 (1 view); M379170 (1 view); M379167 (2 views); M379160 (1 view); M379145 (1 view); M379075 (1 view); M379125 (1 view); M379074 (1 view); M379077 (2 views); M379162 (7 views); M379155 (1 view); M379154 (1 view); M379129 (1 view); M379088 (2 views); M379179 (1 view); M379148 (1 view); M379142 (1 view); M379136 (1 view); M379102 (1 view); M379109 (15 views); M379118 (1 view); M379164 (1 view); M379134 (8 views); M379107 (1 view); M379175 (1 view); M379171 (1 view); M379131 (1 view); M379081 (1 view); M379137 (1 view); M379152 (1 view); M379087 (1 view); M379116 (1 view); M379110 (1 view); M379105 (1 view); M379127 (1 view); M379093 (1 view); M379132 (1 view); M379103 (1 view); M379150 (1 view); M379174 (1 view); M379086 (1 view); M379117 (1 view); M379124 (1 view); M379165 (1 view); M379073 (1 view); M379092 (1 view); M379144 (1 view); M379147 (1 view); M379209 (2 views); M379247 (2 views); M379076 (1 view); M379082 (1 view); M379139 (1 view); M379106 (1 view); M379119 (2 views); M379146 (3 views); M379216 (2 views); M379227 (2 views); M379249 (3 views); M379210 (2 views); M379228 (2 views); M379193 (2 views); M379212 (2 views); M379189 (2 views); M379261 (2 views); M379232 (2 views); M379275 (2 views); M379221 (2 views); M379250 (2 views); M379197 (2 views); M379280 (2 views); M379111 (1 view); M379138 (1 view); M379089 (1 view); M379091 (1 view); M379177 (1 view); M379090 (1 view); M379166 (1 view); M379085 (1 view); M379115 (1 view); M379126 (1 view); M379120 (1 view); M379153 (1 view); M379140 (1 view); M379248 (2 views); M379204 (2 views); M379190 (2 views); M379213 (2 views); M379235 (2 views); M379218 (2 views); M379255 (2 views); M379278 (2 views); M379183 (2 views); M379270 (2 views); M379273 (2 views); M379244 (2 views); M379206 (2 views); M379234 (2 views); M379225 (5 views); M379196 (2 views); M379259 (2 views); M379274 (2 views); M379265 (2 views); M379231 (2 views); M379262 (2 views); M379223 (2 views); M379194 (2 views); M379201 (2 views); M379191 (2 views); M379241 (2 views); M379242 (2 views); M379264 (2 views); M379233 (2 views); M379182 (2 views); M379205 (2 views); M379251 (2 views); M379200 (2 views); M379252 (2 views); M379267 (2 views); M379181 (2 views); M379187 (2 views); M379186 (2 views); M379207 (2 views); M379276 (2 views); M379226 (2 views); M379199 (2 views); M379260 (1 view); M379184 (2 views); M379269 (2 views); M379224 (2 views); M379211 (2 views); M379215 (2 views); M379222 (2 views); M379246 (2 views); M379271 (4 views); M379219 (2 views); M379243 (2 views); M379257 (2 views); M379237 (2 views); M379198 (2 views); M379195 (2 views); M379239 (2 views); M379236 (4 views); M379279 (2 views); M379245 (2 views); M379220 (2 views); M379256 (1 view); M379192 (2 views); M379240 (2 views); M379203 (2 views); M379185 (2 views); M379285 (2 views); M379288 (2 views); M379282 (2 views); M379300 (2 views); M379296 (2 views); M379302 (2 views); M379295 (2 views); M379286 (2 views); M379291 (2 views); M379308 (2 views); M379283 (2 views); M379293 (10 views); M379289 (2 views); M379294 (2 views); M379230 (2 views); M379214 (2 views); M379268 (2 views); M379266 (2 views); M379263 (2 views); M379202 (2 views); M379277 (2 views); M379254 (2 views); M379272 (2 views); M379253 (2 views); M379188 (2 views); M379229 (2 views); M379217 (2 views); M379208 (3 views); M379238 (2 views); M379258 (2 views); M379303 (2 views); M379297 (2 views); M379298 (2 views); M379292 (2 views); M379299 (2 views); M379309 (2 views); M379290 (2 views); M379307 (2 views); M379306 (3 views); M379287 (2 views); M379304 (2 views); M379284 (2 views); M379305 (2 views); M379281 (2 views); M379301 (3 views);
    Views for media list2032
    Taxon list2819
    Specimen list61032
    Bibliography738
    Documents list5




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project232
    Project downloads232