Project 2292: Z.-X. Luo, S. M. Gatesy, F. A. Jenkins Jr, W. W. Amaral, N. H. Shubin. 2015. Mandibular and Dental Characteristics of Late Triassic Mammaliaform Haramiyavia and Their Ramifications for Basal Mammal Evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Specimen: † Haramiyavia clemmenseni (MCZ/7:G95)
View: skull

Abstract

Haramiyavia clemmenseni from the Rhaetic (Late Triassic) of East Greenland, as one of the earliest-known mammaliaforms, has held an important place in understanding the timing of the earliest radiation of the group. Reanalysis of the type specimen, using high resolution computed tomography (╬╝CT), has revealed new details, such as the presence of the dentary condyle of the mammalian jaw hinge, and the postdentary trough for mandibular attachment of the middle ear - a transitional condition of the predecessors to crown Mammalia. Our tests of competing phylogenetic hypotheses with these new data show that Late Triassic haramiyids are a separate clade from multituberculate mammals, and are excluded from the Mammalia. Consequently, hypotheses of a Late Triassic diversification of the Mammalia, which are dependent on multituberculate affinities of haramiyidans, are rejected. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) study of tooth wear facets and kinematic functional simulation of occlusion with virtual 3D models from CT scans confirm that Haramiyavia, had a major orthal occlusion with the tallest lingual cusp of the lower occluding into the lingual embrasure of the upper molars, followed by a short palinal movement along the cusp rows alternating between upper and lower molars. This differs from the minimal orthal, but extensive palinal, occlusal movement of multituberculate mammals, previously regarded as relatives of haramiyidans. The disparity of tooth morphology and the diversity of dental functions of haramiyids and their contemporary mammaliaforms suggest dietary diversification is a major factor in the earliest mammaliaform evolution.


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Article DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1519387112

Project DOI: 10.7934/P2292, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P2292
This project containsMatrices
  • 10 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 1 Document
  • 115 Taxa
  • 4 Specimens
  • 497 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 130 MB

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 29851
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 497
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 1329
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:497/0
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MorphoBank Project 2292


    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    Zhe-Xi Luo
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 12/03/15
    1250000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    Maureen Admin
    Full membership
    Last logged in 12/11/15
    114004970029851
    (29843, 0, 8)
    000
    MorphoBank Curator
    Full membership
    Last logged in 12/11/15
    0250000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M23636' (114 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] † Thrinaxodon
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    17132632600003
    [2] † Massetognathus
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    23526226200003
    [3] † Probainognathus
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    25624124100003
    [4] † Tritylodontids
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    13836235900003
    [5] † Pachygenelus
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    20129629600003
    [6] † Adelobasileus
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    405929200003
    [7] † Sinoconodon
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    16433433300003
    [8] † Morganucodon
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    11139438600003
    [9] † Megazostrodon
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    13935835800003
    [10] † Haldanodon
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    18431331300003
    [11] † Castorocauda
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    28021721700003
    [12] † Megaconus
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    28321421400003
    [13] † Eleutherodon
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    448494900003
    [14] † Sineleutherus
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    442565500003
    [15] † Thomasia
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    434636300003
    [16] † Haramiyavia
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    37911811800003
    [17] † Arboroharamiya
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    34515315200003
    [18] † Xianshou linglong
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    28920820800003
    [19] † Xianshou songae
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    29520220200003
    [20] † Shenshou
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    23626226100003
    [21] † Rugosodon
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    25224524500003
    [22] † Kuehneodon
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    36912812800003
    [23] † Sinobaatar
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    23026826700003
    [24] † Plagiaulacids
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    26623623100003
    [25] † Cimolodontans
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    10041939700003
    [26] † Hadrocodium
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    24225525500003
    [27] † Shuotherium
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    37612112100003
    [28] † Pseudotribos
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    30918818800003
    [29] † Asfaltomylos
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    400979700003
    [30] † Ambondro
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    421767600003
    [31] † Ausktribosphenos
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    38211511500003
    [32] † Bishops
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    38111611600003
    [33] † Teinolophos
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    405929200003
    [34] † Steropodon
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    423747400003
    [35] † Obdurodon
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    25923823800003
    [36] † Ornithorhynchus
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    13036936700003
    [37] † Tachyglossus
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    17832131900003
    [38] † Fruitafossor
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    31018718700003
    [39] † Gobiconodon
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    12737137000003
    [40] † Repenomamus
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    11937837800003
    [41] † Amphilestes
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    399989800003
    [42] † Yanoconodon
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    19829929900003
    [43] † Jeholodens
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    18231531500003
    [44] † Trioracodon
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    34315515400003
    [45] † Priacodon
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    29720120000003
    [46] † Tinodon
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    39610210100003
    [47] † Akidolestes
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    20529229200003
    [48] † Spalacotherium
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    34415315300003
    [49] † Zhangheotherium
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    14235535500003
    [50] † Maotherium
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    14035935700003
    [51] † Dryolestes
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    32217517500003
    [52] † Henkelotherium
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    25224524500003
    [53] † Amphitherium
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    35714014000003
    [54] † Peramus
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    33316616400003
    [55] † Vincelestes
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    9440540300003
    [56] † Nanolestes
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    35114614600003
    [57] † Kielantherium
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    35613913803003
    [58] † Aegialodon
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    437606000003
    [59] † Montanalestes
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    38111611600003
    [60] † Prokennalestes
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    27922021800003
    [61] † Murtoilestes
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    406919100003
    [62] † Eomaia
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    17132632600003
    [63] † Juramaia
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    30418818805003
    [64] † Kennalestes
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    19430530300003
    [65] † Asioryctes
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    11738038000003
    [66] † Ukhaatherium
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    20029729700003
    [67] † Zalambdalestes
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    7543042200003
    [68] † Daulestes
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    25824023900003
    [69] † Aspanlestes
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    35813913900003
    [70] † Eoungulatum
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    37212512500003
    [71] † Cimolestes
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    32816916900003
    [72] † Gypsonictops
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    33116616600003
    [73] † Protungulatum
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    27622222100003
    [74] Erinaceus
    Last Modified in 10/22/15
    4045845700003
    [75] † Leptictis
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    7642142100003
    [76] Canis
    Last Modified in 10/22/15
    5144744600003
    [77] Felis
    Last Modified in 10/22/15
    5644144100003
    [78] Rattus
    Last Modified in 10/22/15
    9839939900003
    [79] Oryctolagus
    Last Modified in 10/22/15
    8840940900003
    [80] Bradypus
    Last Modified in 10/22/15
    17132732600003
    [81] Tamandua
    Last Modified in 10/22/15
    20429329300003
    [82] † Glyptotherium
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    17931831800003
    [83] Dasypus
    Last Modified in 10/22/15
    16633233100003
    [84] Chaetophractus
    Last Modified in 10/22/15
    16633333100003
    [85] Euphractus
    Last Modified in 10/22/15
    16733233000003
    [86] † Holoclemensia
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    399989800003
    [87] † Sinodelphys
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    22727027000003
    [88] † Deltatheridium
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    21328628400003
    [89] † Atokatheridium
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    407909000003
    [90] † Sulestes
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    31218518500003
    [91] † Asiatherium
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    17732132000003
    [92] † Kokopellia
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    34615215100003
    [93] † Anchistodelphys
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    403949400003
    [94] † Albertatherium
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    437606000003
    [95] † Didelphodon
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    26423323300003
    [96] † Pediomys
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    29720020000003
    [97] † Turgidodon
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    31618118100003
    [98] † Mayulestes
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    10139639600003
    [99] † Pucadelphys
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    7941841800003
    [100] † Andinodelphys
    Last Modified in 12/02/15
    19630130100003
    [101] Didelphis
    Last Modified in 10/22/15
    3746246000003
    [102] Marmosa
    Last Modified in 10/22/15
    3746046000003
    [103] Caenolestes
    Last Modified in 10/22/15
    7042742700003
    [104] Dasyurus
    Last Modified in 10/22/15
    4245645500003
    [105] Perameles
    Last Modified in 10/22/15
    6543243200003
    [106] Dromiciops
    Last Modified in 10/22/15
    4545245200003
    [107] Thylacomyidae
    Last Modified in 10/22/15
    14635135100003
    [108] Macropus
    Last Modified in 10/22/15
    7242742500003
    [109] Acrobates
    Last Modified in 10/22/15
    7442342300003
    [110] Phascolarctos
    Last Modified in 10/22/15
    7542242200003
    [111] Vombatus
    Last Modified in 10/22/15
    7542242200003
    [112] Phalanger
    Last Modified in 10/22/15
    6942842800003
    [113] Pseudocheirus
    Last Modified in 10/22/15
    7042742700003
    [114] Petauroides
    Last Modified in 10/22/15
    7142642600003


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    Project overview3027
    Media views6049Media search (2544 views); M406226 (370 views); M406227 (296 views); M406228 (348 views); M406245 (450 views); M402214 (378 views); M402215 (317 views); M406231 (296 views); M406246 (333 views); M406232 (329 views); M406248 (388 views);
    Documents list995
    Matrix views1383Matrix landing page (1177 views); Matrix (206 views);
    Taxon list9466
    Specimen list1707
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    Bibliography530




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project325
    Media downloads15M406228 (1 download); M402215 (1 download); M406226 (4 downloads); M406245 (5 downloads); M406246 (3 downloads); M406248 (1 download);
    Project downloads267
    Matrix downloads37Matrix (37 downloads);
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