Project 2331: F. G. Marx, R. E. Fordyce. 2016. A link no longer missing: new evidence for the cetotheriid affinities of Caperea. PLOS ONE. 11:e0164059.
Specimen: † Miocaperea pulchra (SMNS:46978)

Abstract

The origins of the enigmatic pygmy right whale Caperea marginata, the only living member of its subfamily (Neobalaeninae), are an outstanding mystery of cetacean evolution. Its strikingly disparate morphology sets Caperea apart from all other whales, and has turned it into a wildcard taxon that holds the key to understanding modern baleen whale diversity. Morphological cladistics generally ally this species with right whales, whereas molecular analyses consistently cluster it with rorquals and grey whales (Balaenopteroidea). A recent study potentially resolved this conflict by proposing that Caperea belongs with the otherwise extinct Cetotheriidae, but has been strongly criticised on morphological grounds. Evidence from the neobalaenine fossil record could potentially give direct insights into morphological transitions, but is currently limited to just a single species: the Late Miocene Miocaperea pulchra, from Peru. We show that Miocaperea has a highly unusual morphology of the auditory region, resulting from a–presumably feeding-related–strengthening of the articulation of the hyoid apparatus with the skull. This distinctive arrangement is otherwise only found in the extinct Cetotheriidae, which makes Miocaperea a “missing link” that demonstrates the origin of pygmy right whales from cetotheriids, and confirms the latter’s resurrection from the dead.


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Article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0164059

Project DOI: 10.7934/P2331, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P2331
This project containsMatrices
  • 22 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 1 Document
  • 94 Taxa
  • 2 Specimens
  • 272 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 27 MB

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 15918
Total media associated with cells: 72
Total labels associated with cell media: 78
Characters
Total characters: 272
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 634
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:245/27
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MorphoBank Project 2331


    Members

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    Felix Marx
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 10/07/16
    94222027200015918
    (14496, 321, 1101)
    072780
    Ewan Fordyce
    Full membership
    Last logged in Never
    000000000
    (0, 0, 0)
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    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M23686' (94 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
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    scored
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    [1] † Zygorhiza kochii
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    1724624609002
    [2] † Archaeodelphis patrius
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    14612112105002
    [3] † Waipatia maerewhenua
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    5120920939002
    [4] Physeter macrocephalus
    Last Modified in 03/19/16
    12229227033002
    [5] † Aetiocetus cotylalveus
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    10116816812002
    [6] † Aetiocetus polydentatus
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    9117517533002
    [7] † Aetiocetus weltoni
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    7619319303002
    [8] † Aglaocetus moreni
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    115141141313002
    [9] † Aglaocetus patulus
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    70189187114002
    [10] † Archaebalaenoptera castriarquati
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    150103103316002
    [11] † Aulocetus latus
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    16310210225002
    [12] † Balaena montalionis
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    1787676216002
    [13] Balaena mysticetus
    Last Modified in 12/16/15
    2250249021002
    [14] † Balaena ricei
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    1599393317002
    [15] † Balaenella brachyrhynus
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    112141141118002
    [16] Balaenoptera acutorostrata
    Last Modified in 12/16/15
    0256255017002
    [17] † Balaenoptera bertae
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    191747416002
    [18] Balaenoptera bonaerensis
    Last Modified in 12/16/15
    4252252016002
    [19] Balaenoptera borealis
    Last Modified in 12/16/15
    1256255016002
    [20] Balaenoptera musculus
    Last Modified in 12/16/15
    2255253017002
    [21] Balaenoptera omurai
    Last Modified in 12/16/15
    7248248017002
    [22] Balaenoptera physalus
    Last Modified in 12/16/15
    0258256016002
    [23] † Balaenoptera portisi
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    75179179315002
    [24] † Balaenoptera ryani
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    182838235002
    [25] † Balaenoptera siberi
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    94162160315002
    [26] † Balaenula astensis
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    105150150017002
    [27] † Balaenula sp.
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    129125125117002
    [28] † Brandtocetus chongulek
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    14012712615002
    [29] Caperea marginata
    Last Modified in 12/16/15
    3252246023002
    [30] † Cephalotropis coronatus
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    117140140114002
    [31] † Cetotherium megalophysum
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    137117117117002
    [32] † Cetotherium rathkii
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    110143143217002
    [33] † Cetotherium riabinini
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    70185185215002
    [34] † ChM pv4745
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    12614014024002
    [35] † Chonecetus sookensis
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    188808022002
    [36] † Diorocetus chichibuensis
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    79178178213002
    [37] † Diorocetus hiatus
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    43215215113002
    [38] † Diorocetus shobarensis
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    127129129313002
    [39] † Diunatans luctoretemergo
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    14612312204002
    [40] † Eomysticetus whitmorei
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    77178178116002
    [41] † Eschrichtioides gastaldii
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    107148148215002
    [42] Eschrichtius robustus
    Last Modified in 12/16/15
    1259254017002
    [43] † Eubalaena belgica
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    191737335002
    [44] † Eubalaena shinshuensis
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    1955858316002
    [45] Eubalaena spp.
    Last Modified in 12/16/15
    0255250022002
    [46] † Fucaia buelli
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    11614914943002
    [47] † Fucaia goedertorum
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    7119619524002
    [48] † Gricetoides aurorae
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    187828203002
    [49] † Herentalia nigra
    Last Modified in 12/16/15
    0640203672782
    [50] † Herpetocetus bramblei
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    112142142117002
    [51] † Herpetocetus morrowi
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    39214214118002
    [52] † Herpetocetus sp.
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    200636336002
    [53] † Herpetocetus transatlanticus
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    14711611618002
    [54] † Isanacetus laticephalus
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    57199199016002
    [55] † Janjucetus hunderi
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    8218418406002
    [56] † Joumocetus shimizui
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    136117117316002
    [57] † Kurdalagonus mchedlidzei
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    124132132115002
    [58] † Llanocetus denticrenatus
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    10416416404002
    [59] † Mammalodon colliveri
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    8917417427002
    [60] † Mauicetus parki
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    73185183115002
    [61] † Megaptera hubachi
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    69186186017002
    [62] † Megaptera miocaena
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    103153153016002
    [63] Megaptera novaeangliae
    Last Modified in 12/16/15
    1258256015002
    [64] † Metopocetus durinasus
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    186797916002
    [65] † Metopocetus hunteri
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    15810910806002
    [66] † Metopocetus vandelli
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    16110510515002
    [67] † Micromysticetus rothauseni
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    180878723002
    [68] † Miocaperea pulchra
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    109145144019002
    [69] † Morawanocetus yabukii
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    12114414335002
    [70] † Morenocetus parvus
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    15411411404002
    [71] † Nannocetus eremus
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    177909014002
    [72] † NMNZ mm001630
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    57197197018002
    [73] † OCPC 1178
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    172929262002
    [74] † OU 22026
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    233363630002
    [75] † OU 22224
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    15910710733002
    [76] † OU 22705
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    104153153015002
    [77] † OU gs10897
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    210565633002
    [78] † Parabalaenoptera baulinensis
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    87169169115002
    [79] † Parietobalaena campiniana
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    100156156016002
    [80] † Parietobalaena palmeri
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    44219213114002
    [81] † Parietobalaena sp.
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    102154154115002
    [82] † Parietobalaena yamaokai
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    83179176013002
    [83] † Pelocetus calvertensis
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    37220220114002
    [84] † Peripolocetus vexillifer
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    209606012002
    [85] † Pinocetus polonicus
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    135121121313002
    [86] † Piscobalaena nana
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    14240239019002
    [87] † Plesiobalaenoptera quarantellii
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    119136135117002
    [88] † Thinocetus arthritus
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    117141141113002
    [89] † Tiphyocetus temblorensis
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    201696911002
    [90] † Titanocetus sammarinensis
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    114142142313002
    [91] † Uranocetus gramensis
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    81175175115002
    [92] † Waharoa ruwhenua
    Last Modified in 12/16/15
    96158158117002
    [93] † Yamatocetus canaliculatus
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    67189189115002
    [94] † ZMT 67
    Last Modified in 02/16/16
    115142142015002


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    Bibliography314
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