Project 240: G. S. Morgan, N. J. Czaplewski, N. B. Simmons. 2019. A new mormoopid bat from the Oligocene (Whitneyan and Early Arikareean) of Florida, and phylogenetic relationships of the major clades of Mormoopidae (Mammalia: Chiroptera). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 434:1-141.
Specimen: † Koopmanycteris mormonotus (SCSM:2004.35.1)
View: multiple views


A new genus and species of fossil bat, Koopmanycteris palaeomormoops, representing an ancient member of the endemic Neotropical family Mormoopidae, is described from the Oligocene of Florida. This new species is known from two paleokarst deposits in northern peninsular Florida, the early Oligocene (Whitneyan, 30-32 Ma) I-75 Local Fauna in Alachua County and the late Oligocene (early Arikareean, 26-28 Ma) Brooksville 2 Local Fauna in Hernando County. The discovery of Koopmanycteris extends the fossil record of the Mormoopidae back in time almost 30 million years. Compared to most other described taxa of North American Tertiary bats, the fossil sample of Koopmanycteris palaeomormoops is substantial, consisting of 50 specimens including: P4, all lower teeth from p3 through m3, dentary, petrosal, humerus, proximal radius, and femur. Koopmanycteris is morphologically intermediate between the two living genera of mormoopids, Mormoops and Pteronotus, but is most similar to the former taxon. Characters shared by Koopmanycteris and Mormoops include: large anterolabial basin on P4; large, double-rooted p3; secondary process ventral to angular process on dentary; absence of groove separating capitulum into medial and lateral portions on distal humerus; presence of prominent ridge on posterolateral edge of distal humeral shaft; rounded extremity on proximal radius; and presence of a prominent ridge or tubercle on posterodistal shaft of femur. All of these features appear to be relatively derived, with the exception of the large, double-rooted p3. In several mandibular characters, Koopmanycteris more closely resembles Pteronotus, including: pronounced posteroventral process on the symphysis; lack of curvature of ventral edge of horizontal ramus between posterior edge of symphysis and p4; and less pronounced dorsal upturning of ascending ramus compared to Mormoops. Koopmanycteris retains the primitive dental morphology of Mormoops, with a large double-rooted p3, and the primitive posterior mandibular morphology of Pteronotus, with the lesser degree of dorsal flexion of the ascending ramus. A phylogenetic analysis including all known extant mormoopid lineages as well as representative outgroups from other noctilionoid clades confirms that Koopmanycteris and Mormoops are sister taxa. These findings indicate that the lineages leading to Pteronotus and Mormoops were distinct by ~30 Ma. The fossil record tentatively indicates that the Mormoopidae originated in North America in the early Oligocene or earlier, and may not have reached South America until the Pliocene following the onset of the Great American Biotic Interchange. Several lines of evidence support this hypothesis: (1) the earliest fossil record of the Mormoopidae is in the early Oligocene of Florida; (2) the greatest diversity and endemism of modern mormoopid species is in the West Indies; and (3) the absence of a pre-late Pleistocene record, lack of endemism, and marginal recent distribution of mormoopids in South America. Most species of living mormoopids are obligate cave dwellers, suggesting that the occurrence of caves and paleokarst deposits has affected both their modern distribution and fossil record.

Read the article »

Article DOI:

Project DOI: 10.7934/P240,
This project containsMatrices
  • 11 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 33 Taxa
  • 10 Specimens
  • 245 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 15.06M

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 5150
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Total characters: 245
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 611
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:191/54
Currently Viewing:
MorphoBank Project 240

    Authors' Institutions

    • New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science

    • University of Oklahoma

    • American Museum of Natural History

    • Oklahoma Museum of Natural History


    member name taxa specimens media media
    chars character
    notes  media
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    notes  medialabels
    Nancy Simmons
    Project Administrator
    (3970, 1082, 95)
    Kenzley Alphonse
    (0, 0, 0)
    Nicholas Czaplewski
    Full membership
    (2, 1, 0)
    Gary Morgan
    Full membership
    (0, 0, 0)

    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M622' (21 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    no cell
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    [1] Saccopteryx bilineata
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [2] Mystacina tuberculata
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [3] Mystacina robusta
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [4] Thyroptera tricolor
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [5] Furipterus horrens
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [6] Noctilio albiventris
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [7] Noctilio leporinus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [8] Artibeus jamaicensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [9] Macrotus waterhousii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [10] Macrotus californicus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [11] † Speonycteris aurantiadens
    Last Modified in 03/17/22
    [12] † Koopmanycteris mormonotus
    Last Modified in 03/17/22
    [13] Mormoops megalophylla
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [14] Mormoops blainvillii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [15] Pteronotus parnellii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [16] Pteronotus pristinus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [17] Pteronotus personatus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [18] Pteronotus macleayii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [19] Pteronotus quadridens
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [20] Pteronotus davyi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [21] Pteronotus gymnonotus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13

    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views1325
    Project overview78
    Matrix views79Matrix landing page (67 views); Modified mormoopid matrix (12 views);
    Taxon list267
    Media views509Media search (176 views); M31608 (31 views); M31609 (32 views); M31610 (30 views); M31611 (31 views); M31612 (30 views); M31613 (29 views); M31614 (29 views); M31615 (32 views); M31616 (32 views); M31618 (31 views); M409776 (26 views);
    Views for media list52
    Specimen list302

    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project10
    Project downloads9
    Matrix downloads1Modified mormoopid matrix (1 download);