Project 2403: C. W. Nelson, N. A. Jud. 2017. Biogeographic Implications of Mammea paramericana sp. nov. from the Lower Miocene of Panama and the Evolution of Calophyllaceae. International Journal of Plant Sciences. 178 (3):241-257.
Specimen: Mammea mammea americana (unvouchered)

Abstract

Premise of research. Mammea (Calophyllaceae) is a pantropical genus of 70 tree species, most of which are native to Madagascar. We describe a new species of Mammea on the basis of a fossil stem from the lower Miocene of Panama, discuss its implications for the biogeography of the genus, and assemble a set of morphological characters to examine the phylogeny of Calophyllaceae and confirm our identification.

Methodology. We prepared the fossil stem using the cellulose acetate peel technique and compared its anatomy with that of extant plants, including a specimen of Mammea americana obtained from Puerto Rico, and with that of other fossils. For our phylogenetic analysis, we modified a previously published morphological matrix of reproductive and vegetative characters and added 14 wood characters, for a total of 66 characters.

Pivotal results. Distinctive anatomical features of Mammea paramericana sp. nov. include predominantly solitary vessels, vasicentric tracheids, fibers with distinctly bordered pits in both radial and tangential walls, diffuse-in-aggregates axial parenchyma, narrow rays with upright marginal cells, and radial canals. The fossil stem has shorter pith cells, wider vessels, and fewer rows of upright marginal ray cells, and it lacks scalariform perforation plates compared with the sample of extant M. americana from Puerto Rico. The close relationship between the fossil and modern Mammea is supported by all of the most parsimonious trees from the phylogenetic analysis, as is the monophyly of Calophyllaceae.

Conclusions. This fossil is the earliest evidence of Mammea in the Neotropics and is roughly coeval with previously recognized fossils of the genus from Africa. The fossil demonstrates that the diversification of Mammea in the Americas was underway by 19 Ma. Mammea likely reached the Neotropics from Africa via long-distance dispersal. While the morphological phylogenetic analysis recovers some of the relationships found in molecular topologies, it remains unresolved with respect to the immediate relatives of Mammea.



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Article DOI: 10.1086/689618

Project DOI: 10.7934/P2403, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P2403
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 37 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 66 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 4.52M

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 1492
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 66
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 152
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:66/0
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MorphoBank Project 2403

    This research
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    Authors' Institutions

    • Missouri Botanical Garden

    • University of Missouri



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    comms
       
    notes  media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
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    notes  medialabels
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    Nathan Jud
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 09/06/16
    371166015001492
    (1480, 0, 12)
    02000
    Chris Nelson
    Full membership
    Last logged in 06/28/16
    000000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    00000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M24085' (23 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
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    no cell
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    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
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    [1] Calophyllum
    Last Modified in 06/27/16
    1726401002
    [2] Caraipa
    Last Modified in 06/27/16
    5706100002
    [3] Clusiella
    Last Modified in 06/27/16
    16535000002
    [4] Haploclathra
    Last Modified in 06/27/16
    4686200002
    [5] Kayea
    Last Modified in 06/27/16
    1706500002
    [6] Kielmeyera
    Last Modified in 06/27/16
    1786500002
    [7] Mahurea
    Last Modified in 06/27/16
    2676400002
    [8] Marila grandiflora group
    Last Modified in 06/27/16
    4666200002
    [9] Marila tomentosa group
    Last Modified in 06/27/16
    5676100002
    [10] Mesua ferrea group
    Last Modified in 06/27/16
    2636202002
    [11] Mammea americana group
    Last Modified in 06/27/16
    0706600002
    [12] Mammea bongo group
    Last Modified in 06/27/16
    2676400002
    [13] Neotatea
    Last Modified in 06/27/16
    2656202002
    [14] Poeciloneuron indicum
    Last Modified in 06/27/16
    3656300002
    [15] Endodesmia calophylloides
    Last Modified in 06/27/16
    4605903002
    [16] Lebrunia bushaie
    Last Modified in 06/27/16
    3606003002
    [17] Cratoxylum sects. cratoxylum and tridesmos
    Last Modified in 06/27/16
    1716500002
    [18] Eliaea articulata
    Last Modified in 06/27/16
    1686500002
    [19] Harungana madagascariensis
    Last Modified in 06/27/16
    1686500002
    [20] Psorospermum cerasifolium group
    Last Modified in 06/27/16
    2636301002
    [21] Vismia cayennensis group
    Last Modified in 06/27/16
    2696400002
    [22] Hypericum sect. myriandra
    Last Modified in 06/27/16
    11635500002
    [23] † Mammea paramericana
    Last Modified in 06/27/16
    49171700002


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    Specimen list1228
    Taxon list5178
    Bibliography513




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    Total downloads from project162
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    Matrix downloads2Calophyllaceae with fossil Mammea (2 downloads);