Project 2404: M. Clauss, I. Nurutdinova, C. Meloro, H. Gunga, D. Jiang, J. Koller, B. Herkner, P. M. Sander, O. Hellwich. 2017. Reconstruction of body cavity volume in terrestrial tetrapods. Journal of Anatomy. 230 (2):325-336.
Specimen: Hexaprotodon liberiensis


Although it is generally assumed that herbivores have more voluminous body cavities due to larger digestive tracts required for the digestion of plant fiber, this concept has not been addressed quantitatively. We estimated the volume of the torso in 126 terrestrial tetrapods (synapsids including basal synapsids and mammals, and diapsids including birds, non-avian dinosaurs and reptiles) classified as either herbivore or carnivore in digital models of mounted skeletons, using the convex hull method. The difference in relative torso volume between diet types was significant in mammals, where herbivores relative torso volumes about two times larger than that of carnivores, supporting the general hypothesis. However, this effect was not evident in diapsids. This may either reflect the difficulty to reliably reconstruct mounted skeletons in non-avian dinosaurs, or a fundamental difference in the bauplan of different groups of tetrapods, for example due to differences in respiratory anatomy. Evidently, the condition in mammals should not be automatically assumed in other, including more basal, tetrapod lineages. In both synapsids and diapsids, large animals showed a high degree of divergence with respect to the proportion of their convex hull directly supported by bone, with animals like elephants or Triceratops having a low proportion, and animals such as rhinoceros having a high proportion of bony support. The relevance of this difference remains to be further investigated.

Read the article »

Article DOI: 10.1111/joa.12557

Project DOI: 10.7934/P2404,
This project contains
  • 1 Media
  • 522 Documents
  • 1 Taxon
  • 2 Specimens
Total size of project's media files: 963.42k

Download Project SDD File
Currently Viewing:
MorphoBank Project 2404

    Authors' Institutions

    • Technische Universitaet Berlin (Technical University Berlin)

    • University of Zurich (Universität Zürich)

    • Senckenberg Research Institute (Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg)

    • Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn (University of Bonn)

    • Liverpool John Moores University

    • CharitéCrossOver ‐ Institute of Physiology


    member name taxa specimens media media
    Marcus Clauss
    Project Administrator

    Project has no matrices defined.

    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views19164
    Project overview3105
    Media views4204Media search (3668 views); M410933 (536 views);
    Documents list2227
    Specimen list2893
    Taxon list1699
    Views for media list2344

    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project541
    Project downloads309
    Document downloads230Acinonyx_jubatus (5 downloads); Gorilla_gorilla (2 downloads); Diceros_bicornis (2 downloads); Panthera_tigris (3 downloads); Allosaurus_fragilis (4 downloads); Tyrannosaurus_rex (2 downloads); Tyrannosaurus_rex.torso.hull (1 download); Triceratops_elatus (13 downloads); Brachiosaurus_brancai (4 downloads); Brachiosaurus_brancai.torso (1 download); Iguanodon_bernissartensis (4 downloads); Anatotitan_copei (3 downloads); Protoceratops_andrewsi (12 downloads); Dimetrodon_incisivus (5 downloads); Diplodocus_carnegii (4 downloads); Stegosaurus (3 downloads); Stegosaurus_stenops (2 downloads); Yangchuanosaurus_hepingensis (3 downloads); Euoplocephalus_tutus (5 downloads); 129Tetrapods (1 download); Rhea_americana.leg (1 download); Ailurus_fulgens (2 downloads); Amphicyon_ingens (1 download); Archaeotherium_mortoni (1 download); Arctictis_binturong (1 download); Atlasaurus_imelakei (2 downloads); Bactrosaurus_johnsoni (3 downloads); Bison_bison (2 downloads); Blastoceros_pampaeus (1 download); Bos_gaurus (1 download); Bos_taurus (1 download); Brontops_robustus (1 download); Camelus_dromedarius (1 download); Canis_canis (1 download); Caracal_caracal (1 download); Castor_canadensis (2 downloads); Cavia_porcellus (1 download); Cephalophus_niger (1 download); Cervus_elaphus (2 downloads); Chiniquodon_theotonicus (1 download); Choloepus_didactylus (1 download); Coelogenys_paca (1 download); Dama_dama (1 download); Datousaurus_bashanensis (1 download); Diadectes_phaseolinus (1 download); Dicerorhinus_sumatrensis (1 download); Dinohippus_leidyanus (1 download); Diplodocus_longus (3 downloads); Edaphosaurus_boanerges (1 download); Elephantulus_rozeti (1 download); Elephas_maximus (1 download); Equus_caballus (1 download); Equus_scotti (1 download); Eryops_megacephalus (1 download); Felis_catus (1 download); Gastonia_burgei (3 downloads); Gigantspinosaurus_sichuanensis (5 downloads); Giraffa_camelopardalis (2 downloads); Glossotherium_robustus (1 download); Gomphotherium_productum (1 download); Herpestes_brachyurus (1 download); Hexaprotodon_liberiensis (2 downloads); Hippopotamus_amphibius (2 downloads); Hoplophoneus_primaevus (1 download); Hyaenodon_horridus (1 download); Hydrochaeris_hydrochaeris (2 downloads); Hystrix_spp (1 download); Iguana_rhinolopha (1 download); Keratocephalus_moloch (1 download); Lama_guanicoe (1 download); Lemmus_lemmus (1 download); Loxodonta_africana (1 download); Lufengosaurus_huenei (2 downloads); Lutra_lutra (2 downloads); Lycaenops_ornatus (2 downloads); Mamenchisaurus_constructus (2 downloads); Mamenchisaurus_jingyanensis (2 downloads); Mammuthus_jeffersoni (1 download); Mammut_americanum (3 downloads); Megaladapis_edwardsi (1 download); Megaloceros_giganteus (1 download); Merychippus_quintus (1 download); Moschops_capensis (1 download); Myrmecophaga_tridactyla (1 download); Nanger_dama (1 download); Nasalis_larvatus (1 download); Neohipparion_affine (1 download); Okapia_johnstoni (3 downloads); Omeisaurus_yianfuensis (2 downloads); Ophiacodon_retroversus (1 download); Otarid_spp (2 downloads); Panthera_leo (1 download); Panthera_pardus (1 download); Paracerathrium_tianshanensis (2 downloads); Pecari_tajacu (1 download); Phascolarctos_cinereus (1 download); Phascolonus_gigas (1 download); Plateosaurus_engelhardti (1 download); Platygonus_leptorhinus (1 download); Procavia_capensis (1 download); Rangifer_tarandus (1 download); Sauroctonus_parringtoni (1 download); Shunosaurus_lii (2 downloads); Smilodon_floridanus (1 download); Sphenodon_punctatus (1 download); Stahleckeria_potens (1 download); Stenaulorhynchus_stockley (2 downloads); Sus_scrofa (1 download); Tamandua_mexicana (1 download); Tapirus_indicus (2 downloads); Tapirus_terrestris (2 downloads); Tenontosaurus_tilletti (2 downloads); Tetragonias_njalilus (1 download); Toxodon_burmeisteri (1 download); Tragulus_javanicus (2 downloads); Trilophosaurus_buettneri (2 downloads); Ursus_maritimus (1 download); Ursus_spelaeus (1 download); Varanus_salvator (1 download); Vombatus_ursinus (1 download); Vulpes_vulpes (1 download); Wallabia_spp (1 download); Gorilla_gorilla.torso (1 download); Allosaurus_fragilis.torso (1 download); Acinonyx_jubatus.leg (1 download); Acinonyx_jubatus.torso (1 download); Acinonyx_jubatus.torso.hull (1 download); Anatotitan_copei.torso.hull (1 download); Palaeoparadoxia_tabatai (1 download); Tragulus_javanicus.torso.hull (1 download); Szechuanosaurus_campi.leg (1 download); Szechuanosaurus_campi (2 downloads);
    Media downloads2M410933 (2 downloads);