Project 2416: M. D. Ezcurra. 2016. The phylogenetic relationships of basal archosauromorphs, with an emphasis on the systematics of proterosuchian archosauriforms. PeerJ. 4 (1778):1-385.
Specimen: † Heterodontosaurus tucki (unvouchered)
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Abstract

The early evolution of archosauromorphs during the Permo-Triassic constitutes an excellent empirical case study to shed light on evolutionary radiations in deep time and the timing and processes of recovery of terrestrial faunas after a mass extinction. However, macroevolutionary studies of early archosauromorphs are currently limited by poor knowledge of their phylogenetic relationships. In particular, one of the main early archosauromorph groups that need an exhaustive phylogenetic study is ‘‘Proterosuchia’’, which as historically conceived includes members of both
Proterosuchidae and Erythrosuchidae. A new data matrix composed of 96 separate taxa (several of them not included in a quantitative phylogenetic analysis before) and 600 osteological characters was assembled and analysed to generate a comprehensive higher-level phylogenetic hypothesis of basal archosauromorphs and shed light on the species-level interrelationships of taxa historically identified as proterosuchian archosauriforms. The results of the analysis using maximum parsimony include a polyphyletic ‘‘Prolacertiformes’’ and ‘‘Protorosauria’’, in which the Permian Aenigmastropheus and Protorosaurus are the most basal archosauromorphs. The enigmatic choristoderans are either found as the sister-taxa of all other lepidosauromorphs orarchosauromorphs, but consistently placed within Sauria. Prolacertids, rhynchosaurs, allokotosaurians and tanystropheids are the major successive sister clades of Archosauriformes. The Early Triassic Tasmaniosaurus is recovered as the sister-taxon of Archosauriformes. Proterosuchidae is unambiguosly restricted to five species that occur immediately after and before the Permo-Triassic boundary, thus implying that they are a short-lived ‘‘disaster’’ clade. Erythrosuchidae is composed of eight nominal species that occur during the Early and Middle Triassic. ‘‘Proterosuchia’’ is polyphyletic, in which erythrosuchids are more closely related to Euparkeria and more crownward archosauriforms than to proterosuchids, and several species are found widespread along the archosauromorph tree, some being nested within Archosauria (e.g., ‘‘Chasmatosaurus’’ ultimus, Youngosuchus). Doswelliids and proterochampsids are recovered as more closely related to each other than to other archosauromorphs, forming a large clade (Proterochampsia) of semi-aquatic to aquatic forms that includes the bizarre genus Vancleavea. Euparkeria is one of the sister-taxa of the clade composed of proterochampsians and archosaurs. The putative Indian archosaur Yarasuchus is recovered in a polytomy with Euparkeria and more crownward archosauriforms, and as more closely related to the Russian Dongusuchus than to other species. Phytosaurs are recovered as the sister-taxa of all other pseudosuchians, thus being nested within Archosauria.


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Article DOI: 10.7717/peerj.1778

Project DOI: 10.7934/P2416, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P2416
This project containsMatrices
  • 3 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 2 Documents
  • 102 Taxa
  • 2 Specimens
  • 600 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 8 MB

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 27375
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 600
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 1404
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:506/94
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MorphoBank Project 2416


    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    Martin Ezcurra
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 04/27/16
    0010000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    Maureen Admin
    Full membership
    Last logged in 05/10/16
    102226000027375
    (25338, 0, 2037)
    000
    MorphoBank Curator
    Full membership
    Last logged in 06/22/16
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M23953' (102 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
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    access
    [1] † Petrolacosaurus kansensis
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    64473457065003
    [2] † Acerosodontosaurus piveteaui
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    398170164032003
    [3] † Youngina capensis
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    50502456053003
    [4] † Paliguana whitei
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    5097472017003
    [5] † Planocephalosaurus robinsonae
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    194354342053003
    [6] † Gephyrosaurus bridensis
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    171391364042003
    [7] † Cteniogenys sp.
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    329246240029003
    [8] † Simoedosaurus lemoinei
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    125432427047003
    [9] † Aenigmastropheus parringtoni
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    567343200003
    [10] † Protorosaurus speneri
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    153411363049003
    [11] † Amotosaurus rotfeldensis
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    304267260034003
    [12] † Macrocnemus bassanii
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    199356323049003
    [13] † Tanystropheus longobardicus
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    65480424070003
    [14] † Jesairosaurus lehmani
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    295268251048003
    [15] † Pamelaria dolichotrachela
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    133433428039003
    [16] † Azendohsaurus madagaskarensis
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    53508498044003
    [17] † Trilophosaurus buettneri
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    75471439059003
    [18] † Noteosuchus colletti
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    444147135012003
    [19] † Mesosuchus browni
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    68492464042003
    [20] † Howesia browni
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    278306279022003
    [21] † Eohyosaurus wolvaardti
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    47212411809003
    [22] † Rhynchosaurus articeps
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    139413399051003
    [23] † Bentonyx sidensis
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    386180179035003
    [24] † Eorasaurus olsoni
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    577252200003
    [25] † Prolacertoides jimusarensis
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    5305957012003
    [26] † Prolacerta broomi
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    28543499042003
    [27] † Kadimakara australiensis holotype
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    531696603003
    [28] † Kadimakara australiensis combined
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    5058580015003
    [29] † Boreopricea funerea
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    322257229029003
    [30] † Archosaurus rossicus holotype
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    582181800003
    [31] † "Proterosuchus ferugsi"
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    548555101003
    [32] † Proterosuchus fergusi
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    135459422020003
    [33] † Proterosuchus goweri
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    37921921306003
    [34] † Proterosuchus alexanderi
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    171409405023003
    [35] † "Chasmatosaurus" yuani
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    136448433029003
    [36] † "Chasmatosaurus ultimus"
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    547535201003
    [37] † Ankistrodon indicus
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    5938700003
    [38] † Tasmaniosaurus triassicus
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    511938503003
    [39] † Exilisuchus tubercularis
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    5919900003
    [40] † Blomosuchus georgii
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    586141400003
    [41] † Vonhuenia fredericki
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    581171702003
    [42] † Chasmatosuchus rossicus combined
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    563363502003
    [43] † Chasmatosuchus magnus
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    583161601003
    [44] † Gamosaurus lozovskii
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    582181800003
    [45] † Chasmatosuchus magnus combined
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    577222201003
    [46] † Chasmatosuchus vjushkovi
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    581211900003
    [47] † SAM p41754 long reef
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    583171601003
    [48] † Koilamasuchus gonzalezdiazi
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    570312802003
    [49] † Kalisuchus rewanensis holotype
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    568352902003
    [50] † Fugusuchus hejiapanensis
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    422169166011003
    [51] † Sarmatosuchus otschevi
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    39520619806003
    [52] † Guchengosuchus shiguaiensis
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    431159152017003
    [53] † Cuyosuchus huenei
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    44216315305003
    [54] † GHG 7433mi
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    465126123012003
    [55] † Garjainia prima
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    104476472024003
    [56] † Garjainia madiba holotype
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    566333202003
    [57] † Garjainia madiba combined
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    31528727508003
    [58] † Erythrosuchus africanus
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    58514491032003
    [59] † Shansisuchus shansisuchus
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    149426416030003
    [60] † Shansisuchus kuyeheensis
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    528756902003
    [61] † Chalishevia cothurnata
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    521797702003
    [62] † Youngosuchus sinensis
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    316278271013003
    [63] † "Dongusia colorata"
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    584161600003
    [64] † Uralosaurus holotype
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    5887705003
    [65] † Uralosaurus combined
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    572232305003
    [66] † Vancleavea campi
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    190368365045003
    [67] † Asperoris mnyama
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    507918308003
    [68] † Euparkeria capensis
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    41555508016003
    [69] † Dorosuchus neoetus
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    510898901003
    [70] † Yarasuchus deccanensis
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    40719018209003
    [71] † Dongusuchus efremovi
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    575252500003
    [72] † Proterochampsa barrionuevoi
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    188383368037003
    [73] † Proterochampsa nodosa
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    416175174010003
    [74] † Tropidosuchus romeri
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    146441427022003
    [75] † Cerritosaurus binsfeldi
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    408183177014003
    [76] † Gualosuchus reigi
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    182401393024003
    [77] † Chanaresuchus bonapartei
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    68513500029003
    [78] † Pseudochampsa ischigualastensis
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    254335329017003
    [79] † Rhadinosuchus gracilis
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    510938703003
    [80] † Archeopelta arborensis
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    49310410204003
    [81] † Tarjadia ruthae
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    542585101003
    [82] † Jaxtasuchus salomoni
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    43017116206003
    [83] † Doswellia kaltenbachi
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    292282276032003
    [84] † Parasuchus angustifrons
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    382198195023003
    [85] † Parasuchus hislopi
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    77503499024003
    [86] † Nicrosaurus kapffi
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    214363354030003
    [87] † Smilosuchus spp.
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    74495489035003
    [88] † Ornithosuchus longidens
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    192393385018003
    [89] † Riojasuchus tenuisceps
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    86497488023003
    [90] † Nundasuchus songeaensis
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    37721720908003
    [91] † Turfanosuchus dabanensis
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    192399391014003
    [92] † Gracilisuchus stipanicicorum
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    125461445024003
    [93] † Aetosauroides scagliai
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    232368354014003
    [94] † Batrachotomus kupferzellensis
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    118465458021003
    [95] † Prestosuchus chiniquensis
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    62522514021003
    [96] † Dimorphodon macronyx
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    275287282043003
    [97] † Lagerpeton chanarensis
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    456129128016003
    [98] † Marasuchus lilloensis
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    297288280021003
    [99] † Lewisuchus admixtus
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    350242235014003
    [100] † Silesaurus opolensis
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    111459443039003
    [101] † Heterodontosaurus tucki
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    64478472060003
    [102] † Herrerasaurus ischigualastensis
    Last Modified in 04/27/16
    59512496041003


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