Project 2450: Mana Dembo, Davorka Radovčić, Heather M. Garvinc, Myra F. Lairdc, Lauren Schroederc, Jill E. Scottc, Juliet Brophyc, Rebecca R. Ackermanni, Chares M. Musibac, Darryl J. de Ruiterc, Arne Ø. Mooersa, Mark Collard. 2016. The evolutionary relationships and age of Homo naledi: An assessment using dated Bayesian phylogenetic methods. Journal of Human Evolution. 97:17-26.
Specimen: † Australopithecus sediba (unvouchered)

Abstract

Homo naledi is a recently discovered species of fossil hominin from South Africa. A considerable amount is already known about H. naledi but some important questions remain unanswered. Here we report a study that addressed two of them: “Where does H. naledi fit in the hominin evolutionary tree?” and “How old is it?” We used a large supermatrix of craniodental characters for both early and late hominin species and Bayesian phylogenetic techniques to carry out three analyses. First, we performed a dated Bayesian analysis to generate estimates of the evolutionary relationships of fossil hominins including H. naledi. Then we employed Bayes factor tests to compare the strength of support for hypotheses about the relationships of H. naledi suggested by the best-estimate trees. Lastly, we carried out a resampling analysis to assess the accuracy of the age estimate for H. naledi yielded by the dated Bayesian analysis. The analyses strongly supported the hypothesis that H. naledi forms a clade with the other Homo species and Australopithecus sediba. The analyses were more ambiguous regarding the position of H. naledi within the (Homo, Au. sediba) clade. A number of hypotheses were rejected, but several others were not. Based on the available craniodental data, Homo antecessor, Asian Homo erectus, Homo habilis, Homo floresiensis, Homo sapiens, and Au. sediba could all be the sister taxon of H. naledi. According to the dated Bayesian analysis, the most likely age for H. naledi is 912 ka. This age estimate was supported by the resampling analysis. Our findings have a number of implications. Most notably, they support the assignment of the new specimens to Homo, cast doubt on the claim that H. naledi is simply a variant of H. erectus, and suggest H. naledi is younger than has been previously proposed.


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Article DOI: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2016.04.008

Project DOI: 10.7934/P2450, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P2450
This project containsMatrices
  • 8 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 3 Documents
  • 24 Taxa
  • 8 Specimens
  • 391 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 7 MB

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 5407
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 391
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 949
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:293/98
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MorphoBank Project 2450


    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    MorphoBank Curator
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 09/24/16
    2488391005407
    (5407, 0, 0)
    000
    Mark Collard
    Full membership
    Last logged in Never
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    Mana Dembo
    Full membership
    Last logged in Never
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M24099' (24 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] Gorilla gorilla
    Last Modified in 06/30/16
    7932931200003
    [2] Pan troglodytes
    Last Modified in 06/30/16
    9831229300003
    [3] † Sahelanthropus tchadensis
    Last Modified in 06/30/16
    329656200003
    [4] † Ardipithecus ramidus
    Last Modified in 06/30/16
    359323200003
    [5] † Australopithecus anamensis
    Last Modified in 06/30/16
    347444400003
    [6] † Australopithecus afarensis
    Last Modified in 06/30/16
    12727426400003
    [7] † Australopithecus africanus
    Last Modified in 06/30/16
    6735032400003
    [8] † Australopithecus garhi
    Last Modified in 06/30/16
    343484800003
    [9] † Kenyanthropus platyops
    Last Modified in 06/30/16
    354403700003
    [10] † Paranthropus robustus
    Last Modified in 06/30/16
    14025725100003
    [11] † Paranthropus boisei
    Last Modified in 06/30/16
    8632030500003
    [12] † Paranthropus aethiopicus
    Last Modified in 06/30/16
    20619018500003
    [13] † Australopithecus sediba
    Last Modified in 06/30/16
    24414914700003
    [14] † Homo habilis
    Last Modified in 06/30/16
    6437132700003
    [15] † Homo rudolfensis
    Last Modified in 06/30/16
    14726624400003
    [16] † Homo erectus (african)
    Last Modified in 06/30/16
    2841936300003
    [17] † Homo erectus (asian)
    Last Modified in 06/30/16
    10337828800003
    [18] † Homo heidelbergensis
    Last Modified in 06/30/16
    13932925200003
    [19] † Homo neanderthalensis
    Last Modified in 06/30/16
    14831924300003
    [20] † Homo floresiensis
    Last Modified in 06/30/16
    349424200003
    [21] Homo sapiens
    Last Modified in 06/30/16
    4245934900003
    [22] † Homo antecessor
    Last Modified in 06/30/16
    326666500003
    [23] † Homo erectus (georgian)
    Last Modified in 06/30/16
    21722017400003
    [24] † Homo naledi
    Last Modified in 06/30/16
    26812812300003


    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views11184
    Project overview1227
    Media views3980Media search (1713 views); M424459 (245 views); M424457 (265 views); M424460 (233 views); M424455 (233 views); M424456 (327 views); M424454 (259 views); M424453 (444 views); M424458 (261 views);
    Matrix views867Matrix landing page (842 views); Character matrix (25 views);
    Specimen list1952
    Bibliography361
    Taxon list2138
    Documents list659




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project98
    Project downloads89
    Matrix downloads8Character matrix (8 downloads);
    Media downloads1M424456 (1 download);