Project 246: G. F. Gunnell, N. B. Simmons. 2005. Fossil Evidence and the Origin of Bats. Journal of Mammalian Evolution. 12 (1/2):209-246.
Specimen: Icaronycteris index (PU:18150)

Abstract

The phylogenetic and geographic origins of bats (Chiroptera) remain unknown. The earliest confirmed records of bats date from the early Eocene (approximately 51 Ma) in North America with other early Eocene bat taxa also being represented from Europe, Africa, and Australia. Where known, skeletons of these early taxa indicate that many of the anatomical specializations characteristic of bats had already been achieved by the early Eocene, including forelimb and manus elongation in conjunction with structural changes in the pectoral skeleton, hind limb reorientation, and the presence of rudimentary echolocating abilities. By the middle Eocene, the diversification of bats was well underway with many modern families being represented among fossil forms. A new phylogenetic analysis indicates that several early fossil bats are consecutive sister taxa to the extant crown group (including megabats), and suggests a single origin for the order, at least by the late Paleocene. Although morphological studies have long placed bats in the Grandorder Archonta, (along with primates dermopterans, and tree shrews), recent molecular studies have refuted this hypothesis, instead strongly supporting placement of bats in Laurasiatheria. Primitively, proto-bats were likely insectivorous, under-branch hangers and elementary gliders that exploited terminal branch habitats. Recent work has indicated that a number of other mammalian groups began to exploit similar arboreal, terminal branch habitats in the Paleocene, including multituberculates, eulipotyphlans, dermopterans, and plesiadapiforms. This may offer an ecological explanation for morphological convergences that led to the erroneous inclusion of bats within Archonta: ancestral archontan groups as well as proto-bats apparently were exploiting similar arboreal habitats, which may have led to concurrent development of homoplasic morphological attributes.


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Project DOI: 10.7934/P246, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P246
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 39 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 204 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 1 MB

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 5249
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 204
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 499
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:204/0
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MorphoBank Project 246


    Members

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    notes
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    notes  media
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    (scored, NPA, "-")
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    Nancy Simmons
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 11/17/11
    391102040005249
    (5069, 0, 180)
    0000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M631' (35 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
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    scored
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    "-" cellscell images labels on
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    [1] Tupaia
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    14169169021001
    [2] Cynocephalus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    18171171015001
    [3] Erinaceus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    949191019001
    [4] Sus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    978989018001
    [5] Felis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    51131131022001
    [6] New green river bat
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    155494801001
    [7] Icaronycteris
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    127777601001
    [8] Pteropodidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    120520003001
    [9] Archaeonycteris
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    139646401001
    [10] Tanzanycteris
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    181262201001
    [11] Hassianycteris
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    138666501001
    [12] Palaeochiropteryx
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    122818101001
    [13] Emballonuridae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1319218605001
    [14] Rhinopomatidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2317917803001
    [15] Craseonycteridae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    7112812805001
    [16] Nycteridae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2217817705001
    [17] Megadermatidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1518718702001
    [18] Rhinolophidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1718818304001
    [19] Hipposideridae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2019218004001
    [20] Phyllostomidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    020520004001
    [21] Mormoopidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2218117903001
    [22] Noctilionidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1318618605001
    [23] Mystacinidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    6314013902001
    [24] Myzopodidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    7013113103001
    [25] Thyropteridae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3416816703001
    [26] Furipteridae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    6114214102001
    [27] Natalidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2917317302001
    [28] Antrozoidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    5015315202001
    [29] Tomopeatinae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    7212912903001
    [30] Molossinae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    520019702001
    [31] Vespertilioninae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    819619303001
    [32] Minopterinae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    5314614605001
    [33] Myotinae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1219019002001
    [34] Murininae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    6713313304001
    [35] Kerivoulinae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    6813313303001


    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views21045
    Project overview2246
    Matrix views1700Matrix landing page (1439 views); Simmons & Gunnell (2005) (261 views);
    Media views3675Media search (3147 views); M95839 (528 views);
    Taxon list9886
    Specimen list1898
    Bibliography1640




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project171
    Matrix downloads22Simmons & Gunnell (2005) (22 downloads);
    Project downloads148
    Media downloads1M95839 (1 download);