Project 2491: M. A. O'Leary, K. Alphonse, M. Arce Hernandez, D. Cavaliere, A. Cirranello, T. Dietterich, M. Julius, S. Kaufman, E. Law, M. Passarotti, A. Reft, J. Robalino, N. B. Simmons, S. Smith, D. Stevenson, E. Theriot, P. M. Velazco, R. Walls, M. Yu, M. Daly. 2018. Crowds replicate performance of scientific experts scoring phylogenetic matrices of phenotypes. Systematic Biology. 67 (1):49-60.
Specimen: Ameiurus catus (Linnaeus 1758) (unvouchered)
View: Lateral

Abstract

Scientists building the Tree of Life face an overwhelming challenge to categorize phenotypes (e.g., anatomy, physiology) from millions of living and fossil species. This biodiversity challenge far outstrips the capacities of trained scientific experts. Here we explore whether crowdsourcing can be used to collect matrix data on a large scale with the participation of the non-expert students, or “citizen scientists.” Crowdsourcing, or data collection by non-experts, frequently via the internet, has enabled scientists to tackle some large-scale data collection challenges too massive for individuals or scientific teams alone. The quality of work by non-expert crowds is, however, often questioned and little data has been collected on how such crowds perform on complex tasks such as phylogenetic character coding. We studied a crowd of over 600 non-experts, and found that they could use images to identify anatomical similarity (hypotheses of homology) with an average accuracy of 82% compared to scores provided by experts in the field. This performance pattern held across the Tree of Life, from protists to vertebrates. We introduce a procedure that predicts the difficulty of each character and that can be used to assign harder characters to experts and easier characters to a non-expert crowd for scoring. We test this procedure in a controlled experiment comparing crowd scores to those of experts and show that crowds can produce matrices with over 90% of cells scored correctly while reducing the number of cells to be scored by experts by 50%. Preparation time, including image collection and processing, for a crowdsourcing experiment is significant, and does not currently save time of scientific experts overall. However, if innovations in automation or robotics can reduce such effort, then large-scale implementation of our method could greatly increase the collective scientific knowledge of species phenotypes for phylogenetic tree building. For the field of crowdsourcing, we provide a rare study with ground truth, or an experimental control that many studies lack, and contribute new methods on how to coordinate the work of experts and non-experts. We show that there are important instances in which crowd consensus is not a good proxy for correctness.


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Article DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/syx052

Project DOI: 10.7934/P2491, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P2491
This project containsMatrices
  • 448 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 1 Document
  • 20 Taxa
  • 72 Specimens
  • 7 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 2.67G

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 117
Total media associated with cells: 104
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 7
Total characters with associated media: 6
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 14
Total character states with associated media: 14
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:7/0
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MorphoBank Project 2491

    This research
    supported by

    Authors' Institutions

    • Ohio State University

    • Oregon State University

    • University of Arizona

    • University of Michigan

    • University of Texas at Austin

    • University of Waterloo

    • American Museum of Natural History

    • Drexel University

    • Kenx Technology Inc

    • New York Botanical Garden

    • St. Cloud State University

    • Stony Brook University

    • Whirl-i-gig

    • College of William and Mary

    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    Mariangeles Arce H.
    Project Administrator
    20724487200117
    (109, 0, 8)
    10402
    Maureen O'Leary
    Full membership
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M24107' (20 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] Ictalurus furcatus
    Last Modified in 07/06/16
    0630140none
    [2] Ictalurus balsanus
    Last Modified in 07/06/16
    0700070none
    [3] Ictalurus punctatus
    Last Modified in 07/06/16
    0600170none
    [4] Ictalurus meridionalis
    Last Modified in 07/06/16
    1500170none
    [5] Ameiurus catus
    Last Modified in 07/06/16
    0700070none
    [6] Ameiurus serracanthus
    Last Modified in 07/06/16
    0700090none
    [7] Ameiurus brunneus
    Last Modified in 07/06/16
    0700080none
    [8] Ameiurus platycephalus
    Last Modified in 07/06/16
    0700070none
    [9] Ameiurus natalis
    Last Modified in 07/06/16
    0700070none
    [10] Ameiurus melas
    Last Modified in 07/06/16
    0700070none
    [11] Ameiurus nebulosus
    Last Modified in 07/06/16
    0700070none
    [12] Noturus flavus
    Last Modified in 07/06/16
    0740040none
    [13] Noturus stigmosus
    Last Modified in 07/06/16
    0600170none
    [14] Prietella phreatophila
    Last Modified in 07/06/16
    0430320none
    [15] Pylodictis olivaris
    Last Modified in 07/06/16
    1650020none
    [16] Satan eurystomus
    Last Modified in 07/06/16
    5210010none
    [17] Cranoglanis bouderius
    Last Modified in 07/06/16
    6100010none
    [18] † Ictalurus countermani
    Last Modified in 07/06/16
    4300030none
    [19] † Ictalurus hazenensis
    Last Modified in 07/06/16
    3400040none
    [20] † Hypsidoris farsonensis
    Last Modified in 07/06/16
    3300130none


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    Documents list637
    Views for media list2082
    Specimen list16985
    Taxon list3637
    Bibliography502




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project260
    Project downloads257
    Media downloads1M425072 (1 download);
    Document downloads1Supplementary Material (1 download);
    Matrix downloads1Ictaluridae+Cranoglanididae (1 download);