Project 2502: M. A. O’Leary, K. Alphonse, A. H. Mariangeles, D. Cavaliere, A. Cirranello, T. G. Dietterich, M. Julius, S. Kaufman, E. Law, M. Passarotti, A. Reft, J. Robalino, N. B. Simmons, S. Y. Smith, D. W. Stevenson, E. Theriot, P. M. Velazco, R. L. Walls, M. Yu, M. Daly. 2018. Crowds Replicate Performance of Scientific Experts Scoring Phylogenetic Matrices of Phenotypes. Systematic Biology. 67 (1):49-60.
Specimen: Sicyonia brevirostris (USNM:254665)
View: body, lateral

Abstract

Scientists building the Tree of Life face an overwhelming challenge to categorize phenotypes (e.g., anatomy, physiology) from millions of living and fossil species. This biodiversity challenge far outstrips the capacities of trained scientific experts. Here we explore whether crowdsourcing can be used to collect matrix data on a large scale with the participation of the non-expert students, or “citizen scientists.” Crowdsourcing, or data collection by non-experts, frequently via the internet, has enabled scientists to tackle some large-scale data collection challenges too massive for individuals or scientific teams alone. The quality of work by non-expert crowds is, however, often questioned and little data has been collected on how such crowds perform on complex tasks such as phylogenetic character coding. We studied a crowd of over 600 non-experts, and found that they could use images to identify anatomical similarity (hypotheses of homology) with an average accuracy of 82% compared to scores provided by experts in the field. This performance pattern held across the Tree of Life, from protists to vertebrates. We introduce a procedure that predicts the difficulty of each character and that can be used to assign harder characters to experts and easier characters to a non-expert crowd for scoring. We test this procedure in a controlled experiment comparing crowd scores to those of experts and show that crowds can produce matrices with over 90% of cells scored correctly while reducing the number of cells to be scored by experts by 50%. Preparation time, including image collection and processing, for a crowdsourcing experiment is significant, and does not currently save time of scientific experts overall. However, if innovations in automation or robotics can reduce such effort, then large-scale implementation of our method could greatly increase the collective scientific knowledge of species phenotypes for phylogenetic tree building. For the field of crowdsourcing, we provide a rare study with ground truth, or an experimental control that many studies lack, and contribute new methods on how to coordinate the work of experts and non-experts. We show that there are important instances in which crowd consensus is not a good proxy for correctness.


Read the article »

Article DOI: 10.1093/sysbio/syx052

Project DOI: 10.7934/P2502, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P2502
This project containsMatrices
  • 548 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 9 Documents
  • 15 Taxa
  • 160 Specimens
  • 7 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 2.31G

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 105
Total media associated with cells: 105
Total labels associated with cell media: 67
Characters
Total characters: 7
Total characters with associated media: 7
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 14
Total character states with associated media: 14
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:7/0
Currently Viewing:
MorphoBank Project 2502
  • Creation Date:
    21 July 2016
  • Publication Date:
    30 May 2017
  • Project views: 77888

    This research
    supported by

    Authors' Institutions

    • Ohio State University

    • Oregon State University

    • University of Arizona

    • University of Michigan

    • University of Texas at Austin

    • University of Waterloo

    • American Museum of Natural History

    • Drexel University

    • Kenx Technology Inc

    • New York Botanical Garden

    • St. Cloud State University

    • Stony Brook University

    • Whirl-i-gig

    • College of William and Mary

    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    Javier Robalino
    Project Administrator
    151605487210105
    (102, 0, 3)
    105671
    Maureen O'Leary
    Full membership
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M24143' (15 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] Aristaeopsis edwardsiana
    Last Modified in 07/22/16
    0700077none
    [2] Aristeus virilis
    Last Modified in 07/22/16
    0700072none
    [3] Austropenaeus nitidus
    Last Modified in 07/22/16
    0700070none
    [4] Benthesicymus investigatoris
    Last Modified in 07/22/16
    0600171none
    [5] Benthonectes filipes
    Last Modified in 07/22/16
    0600177none
    [6] Farfantepenaeus aztecus
    Last Modified in 07/22/16
    0700077none
    [7] Haliporoides sibogae
    Last Modified in 07/22/16
    0700077none
    [8] Melicertus latisulcatus
    Last Modified in 07/22/16
    0700077none
    [9] Metapenaeus ensis
    Last Modified in 07/22/16
    0700072none
    [10] Penaeopsis eduardoi
    Last Modified in 07/22/16
    0700077none
    [11] Penaeus monodon
    Last Modified in 07/22/16
    0700070none
    [12] Plesiopenaeus armatus
    Last Modified in 07/22/16
    0700077none
    [13] Sicyonia brevirostris
    Last Modified in 07/22/16
    0700070none
    [14] Sicyonia lancifer
    Last Modified in 07/22/16
    0600176none
    [15] Solenocera melantho
    Last Modified in 07/22/16
    0700077none


    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views77888
    Project overview1346
    Matrix views657Matrix landing page (599 views); Morphological Characters: Penaeoidea (58 views);
    Documents list569
    Media views39057Media search (1987 views); M425454 (225 views); M425417 (209 views); M425375 (248 views); M425428 (187 views); M425431 (179 views); M425436 (211 views); M425411 (199 views); M425410 (200 views); M425400 (222 views); M425371 (261 views); M425413 (203 views); M425361 (434 views); M425391 (251 views); M425368 (245 views); M425392 (274 views); M425423 (230 views); M425427 (205 views); M425460 (202 views); M425433 (183 views); M425369 (263 views); M425374 (251 views); M425364 (274 views); M425451 (203 views); M425408 (200 views); M425399 (235 views); M425394 (212 views); M425384 (247 views); M425373 (256 views); M425376 (233 views); M425449 (214 views); M425421 (176 views); M425447 (192 views); M425396 (266 views); M425440 (202 views); M425448 (206 views); M425452 (204 views); M425429 (200 views); M425377 (330 views); M425367 (216 views); M425453 (193 views); M425430 (204 views); M425365 (337 views); M425387 (229 views); M425409 (197 views); M425372 (215 views); M425401 (224 views); M425389 (235 views); M425458 (208 views); M425455 (199 views); M425418 (212 views); M425434 (200 views); M425381 (230 views); M425446 (184 views); M425414 (222 views); M425366 (280 views); M425407 (200 views); M425456 (206 views); M425415 (210 views); M425386 (219 views); M425459 (181 views); M425397 (231 views); M425432 (186 views); M425416 (209 views); M425388 (232 views); M425378 (230 views); M425404 (236 views); M425457 (207 views); M425420 (179 views); M425445 (207 views); M425382 (246 views); M425362 (242 views); M425422 (269 views); M425438 (170 views); M425439 (189 views); M425406 (247 views); M425403 (198 views); M425402 (236 views); M425443 (190 views); M425405 (208 views); M425380 (238 views); M425450 (239 views); M425363 (223 views); M425395 (234 views); M425393 (243 views); M425419 (188 views); M425412 (214 views); M425444 (199 views); M425437 (190 views); M425425 (254 views); M425441 (200 views); M425426 (195 views); M425379 (252 views); M425424 (204 views); M425383 (226 views); M425494 (131 views); M425510 (121 views); M425524 (117 views); M425469 (119 views); M425576 (122 views); M425547 (107 views); M425529 (122 views); M425540 (120 views); M425483 (128 views); M425509 (130 views); M425495 (121 views); M425534 (106 views); M425491 (131 views); M425501 (108 views); M425571 (108 views); M425468 (122 views); M425538 (124 views); M425567 (108 views); M425497 (134 views); M425480 (99 views); M425584 (111 views); M425519 (125 views); M425488 (133 views); M425523 (122 views); M425550 (109 views); M425548 (125 views); M425552 (101 views); M425511 (119 views); M425507 (120 views); M425561 (105 views); M425568 (119 views); M425558 (127 views); M425577 (98 views); M425506 (112 views); M425546 (112 views); M425536 (138 views); M425462 (117 views); M425500 (110 views); M425513 (130 views); M425537 (135 views); M425472 (143 views); M425581 (105 views); M425471 (126 views); M425543 (118 views); M425477 (118 views); M425573 (129 views); M425499 (122 views); M425514 (134 views); M425522 (132 views); M425485 (106 views); M425553 (122 views); M425470 (124 views); M425516 (113 views); M425533 (102 views); M425512 (113 views); M425461 (122 views); M425496 (111 views); M425579 (107 views); M425564 (123 views); M425528 (124 views); M425508 (109 views); M425527 (108 views); M425566 (110 views); M425478 (113 views); M425539 (108 views); M425490 (112 views); M425545 (106 views); M425517 (125 views); M425563 (119 views); M425482 (113 views); M425474 (106 views); M425531 (114 views); M425560 (131 views); M425535 (125 views); M425465 (121 views); M425489 (102 views); M425487 (128 views); M425554 (133 views); M425503 (139 views); M425486 (115 views); M425479 (105 views); M425555 (101 views); M425542 (111 views); M425467 (126 views); M425559 (114 views); M425544 (120 views); M425504 (114 views); M425521 (110 views); M425530 (115 views); M425580 (105 views); M425557 (118 views); M425572 (104 views); M425518 (124 views); M425463 (121 views); M425493 (121 views); M425464 (113 views); M425575 (104 views); M425505 (123 views); M425569 (106 views); M425481 (129 views); M425520 (102 views); M425582 (117 views); M425556 (129 views); M425565 (104 views); M425484 (126 views); M425466 (124 views); M425583 (121 views); M425549 (111 views); M425515 (113 views); M425475 (131 views); M425492 (112 views); M425541 (112 views); M425498 (123 views); M425562 (139 views); M425574 (118 views); M425570 (126 views); M425551 (119 views); M425532 (100 views); M425370 (215 views); M425442 (216 views); M425385 (219 views); M425435 (174 views); M425398 (216 views); M425390 (215 views); M425473 (124 views); M425585 (105 views); M425476 (108 views); M425526 (111 views); M425578 (113 views); M425525 (115 views); M425502 (107 views); M425677 (1 view); M425672 (1 view); M425810 (1 view); M425872 (1 view); M425865 (1 view); M425842 (1 view); M425899 (1 view); M425903 (1 view); M425868 (1 view); M425809 (1 view); M425856 (1 view); M425862 (1 view); M425883 (1 view); M425881 (1 view); M425846 (1 view); M425914 (1 view); M425839 (1 view); M425875 (1 view); M425902 (1 view); M425869 (1 view); M425876 (1 view); M425916 (1 view); M425859 (1 view); M425814 (1 view); M425882 (1 view); M425867 (1 view); M425833 (1 view); M425909 (1 view); M425885 (1 view); M425901 (1 view); M425847 (1 view); M425896 (1 view); M425893 (1 view); M425860 (2 views); M425878 (1 view); M425849 (1 view); M425844 (1 view); M425806 (1 view); M425866 (1 view); M425900 (1 view); M425820 (1 view); M425836 (1 view); M425840 (1 view); M425894 (1 view); M425863 (1 view); M425886 (1 view); M425811 (1 view); M425817 (1 view); M425877 (1 view); M425889 (1 view); M425815 (1 view); M425915 (1 view); M425805 (1 view); M425887 (1 view); M425897 (1 view); M425905 (1 view); M425808 (1 view); M425884 (1 view); M425835 (1 view); M425841 (1 view); M425807 (1 view); M425804 (1 view); M425861 (2 views); M425911 (2 views); M425892 (2 views); M425850 (2 views); M425803 (2 views); M425880 (2 views); M425855 (2 views); M425818 (2 views); M425858 (3 views); M425891 (20 views); M425838 (2 views); M425908 (2 views); M425837 (2 views); M425904 (2 views); M425854 (1 view); M425870 (2 views); M425907 (6 views); M425813 (2 views); M425890 (5 views); M425819 (2 views); M425913 (2 views); M425871 (2 views); M425864 (2 views); M425812 (2 views); M425857 (2 views); M425895 (2 views); M425821 (2 views); M425926 (1 view); M425948 (1 view); M425946 (1 view); M425923 (1 view); M425933 (1 view); M425942 (1 view); M426008 (1 view); M425964 (1 view); M425959 (1 view); M425950 (1 view); M425963 (1 view); M425960 (1 view); M425921 (1 view); M425918 (1 view); M425949 (1 view); M425953 (1 view); M425968 (1 view); M425956 (1 view); M425965 (1 view); M425952 (1 view); M425934 (14 views); M425929 (1 view); M425955 (1 view); M425922 (1 view); M425925 (1 view); M425957 (1 view); M425958 (1 view); M425947 (1 view); M425935 (1 view); M426030 (1 view); M425966 (1 view); M425937 (1 view); M426031 (1 view); M425917 (1 view); M425954 (1 view); M425927 (1 view); M425943 (1 view); M425932 (1 view); M425941 (1 view); M425928 (1 view); M425951 (1 view); M425945 (1 view); M425919 (1 view); M425967 (1 view); M425920 (1 view);
    Views for media list3517
    Bibliography5095
    Taxon list3956
    Specimen list23691




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project128
    Project downloads127
    Document downloads1Syst Biol Supplementary Material (1 download);