Project 2532: C. Foth, O. W. M. Rauhut. 2017. Re-evaluation of the Haarlem Archaeopteryx and the radiation of maniraptoran theropod dinosaurs. BMC Evolutionary Biology. 17:236.
Specimen: † Ostromia crassipes (TM:6928, 6929)
View: slab and counterslab

Abstract

Background: Archaeopteryx is an iconic fossil that has long been pivotal for our understanding of the origin of birds. Remains of this important taxon have only been found in the Late Jurassic lithographic limestones of Bavaria, Germany. Twelve skeletal specimens are reported so far. Archaeopteryx was long the only pre-Cretaceous paravian theropod known, but recent discoveries from the Tiaojishan Formation, China, yielded a remarkable diversity of this clade, including the possibly oldest and most basal known clade of avialians, here named Anchiornithidae. However, Archaeopteryx remains the only Jurassic paravian theropod based on diagnostic material reported outside China. Results: Re-examination of the incomplete Haarlem Archaeopteryx specimen did not find any diagnostic features of this genus. In contrast, the specimen markedly differs in proportions from other Archaeopteryx specimens and shares two distinct characters with anchiornithids. Phylogenetic analysis confirms it as the first anchiornithid recorded outside the Tiaojushan Formation of China, for which the new generic name Ostromia is proposed here.
Conclusions: In combination with a biogeographic analysis of coelurosaurian theropods and palaeogeographic and stratigraphic data, our results indicate an explosive radiation of maniraptoran coelurosaurs probably in isolation in eastern Asia in the late Middle Jurassic and a rapid, at least Laurasian dispersal of the different subclades in the Late Jurassic. Small body size and, possibly, a multiple origin of flight capabilities enhanced dispersal capabilities of paravian theropods and might thus have been crucial for their evolutionary success.


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Article DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-017-1076-y

Project DOI: 10.7934/P2532, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P2532
This project containsMatrices
  • 2 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 134 Taxa
  • 2 Specimens
  • 561 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 3 MB

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 29948
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 561
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 1269
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:481/80
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MorphoBank Project 2532


    Members

    member name taxa specimens media media
    notes
    chars character
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    notes  media
    labels
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    cell
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    notes  medialabels
    rules
    Oliver Rauhut
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 01/17/18
    134221561000029948
    (29948, 0, 0)
    00000
    Kenzley Alphonse
    Last logged in 03/15/18
    0000000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    00000
    MorphoBank Curator
    Last logged in 03/15/18
    0000000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    00000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M24921' (133 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
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    scored
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    NPA
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    "-" cellscell images labels on
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    [1] † Allosaurus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    4851651300001
    [2] † Sinraptor
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    16439739700001
    [3] † Dilong
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    16339939800001
    [4] † Eotyrannus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    42813313300001
    [5] † Tyrannosaurus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    6649649500001
    [6] † Gorgosaurus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    6949249200001
    [7] † Tanycolagreus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    39916216200001
    [8] † Coelurus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    38717517400001
    [9] † Ornitholestes
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    20835435300001
    [10] † Huaxiagnathus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    26629629500001
    [11] † Sinosauropteryx
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    24331931800001
    [12] † Deinocheirus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    506555500001
    [13] † Harpymimus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    25930330200001
    [14] † Pelecanimimus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    39017117100001
    [15] † Shenzhousaurus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    36619519500001
    [16] † Archaeornithomimus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    31924424200001
    [17] † Garudimimus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    25930230200001
    [18] † Anserimimus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    44611511500001
    [19] † Ornithomimus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    14641641500001
    [20] † Struthiomimus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    13442842700001
    [21] † Gallimimus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    9846646300001
    [22] † Falcarius
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    34721521400001
    [23] † Beipiaosaurus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    476858500001
    [24] † Alxasaurus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    38917317200001
    [25] † Nothronychus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    477848400001
    [26] † Erliansaurus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    492696900001
    [27] † Nanshiungosaurus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    523383800001
    [28] † Neimongosaurus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    44211911900001
    [29] † Segnosaurus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    41214914900001
    [30] † Erlikosaurus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    33822322300001
    [31] † Therizinosaurus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    517444400001
    [32] † Protarchaeopteryx
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    42213913900001
    [33] † Elmisaurus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    515464600001
    [34] † Rinchenia
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    42213913900001
    [35] † Khaan
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    17638638500001
    [36] † Citipati
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    6549849600001
    [37] † Ajancingenia
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    22034334100001
    [38] † Heyuannia
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    41414714700001
    [39] † Byronosaurus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    43412812700001
    [40] † Sinornithoides
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    26130230000001
    [41] † IGM100/44
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    497646400001
    [42] † Troodon
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    34721421400001
    [43] † Saurornithoides
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    35720420400001
    [44] † Zanabazar
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    38018218100001
    [45] † Buitreraptor
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    26329929800001
    [46] † Austroraptor
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    44611611500001
    [47] † Rahonavis
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    37518718600001
    [48] † Bambiraptor
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    9047147100001
    [49] † Sinornithosaurus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    21535234600001
    [50] † Microraptor
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    22034434100001
    [51] † Adasaurus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    31125225000001
    [52] † Velociraptor
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    4052352100001
    [53] † Saurornitholestes
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    38317817800001
    [54] † Deinonychus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    11544744600001
    [55] † Achillobator
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    39916216200001
    [56] † Dromaeosaurus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    39316816800001
    [57] † Utahraptor
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    43712412400001
    [58] † Atrociraptor
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    513484800001
    [59] † Epidexipteryx
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    37319018800001
    [60] † Jeholornis
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    20935335200001
    [61] † Sapeornis
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    18238137900001
    [62] † Confuciusornis
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    14941641200001
    [63] † Yanornis
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    27629128500001
    [64] † Hagryphus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    525363600001
    [65] † Microvenator
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    45710510400001
    [66] † Avimimus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    32124024000001
    [67] † Oviraptor
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    32423723700001
    [68] † Conchoraptor
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    25930230200001
    [69] † Chirostenotes
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    34621521500001
    [70] † Incisivosaurus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    37818318300001
    [71] † Similicaudipteryx
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    32024124100001
    [72] † Caudipteryx
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    21534634600001
    [73] † Xiaotingia
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    30026126100001
    [74] † Sinovenator
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    20535735600001
    [75] † Archaeopteryx
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    7449148700001
    [76] † Ostromia
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    510515100001
    [77] † Mei
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    17838638300001
    [78] † Haplocheirus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    22433733700001
    [79] † Patagonykus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    43212912900001
    [80] † Mononykus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    32723523400001
    [81] † Shuvuuia
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    13742742400001
    [82] † Alvarezsaurus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    466959500001
    [83] † IMG 100/1015
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    45210910900001
    [84] † Tianyuraptor
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    34921321200001
    [85] † Compsognathus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    24531731600001
    [86] † Sinusonasus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    466959500001
    [87] † Parvicursor
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    503585800001
    [88] † Sinornithomimus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    30126026000001
    [89] † Guanlong
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    30425725700001
    [90] † Daspletosaurus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    18637537500001
    [91] † Graciliraptor
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    471919000001
    [92] † Balaur
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    35920220200001
    [93] † Mahakala
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    35920420200001
    [94] † Apsaravis
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    32923623200001
    [95] † Yixianornis
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    25031731100001
    [96] † Yixianosaurus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    489737200001
    [97] † Pedopenna
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    531303000001
    [98] † Tsaagan
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    31125125000001
    [99] † Hesperonychus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    545161600001
    [100] † Pyroraptor
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    545161600001
    [101] † Albinykus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    519424200001
    [102] † Proceratosaurus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    485767600001
    [103] † Xixiasaurus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    503585800001
    [104] † IGM100/1126
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    33023223100001
    [105] † IGM100/1323
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    41814314300001
    [106] † Tarbosaurus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    19636736500001
    [107] † Albertosaurus
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    22933233200001
    [108] † Jixiangornis
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    30525625600001
    [109] † Neuquenornis
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    46010310100001
    [110] † Patagopteryx
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    41215514900001
    [111] † Cathayornis
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    38018618100001
    [112] † Concornis
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    44112412000001
    [113] † Gobipteryx
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    465989600001
    [114] † Vorona
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    519424200001
    [115] † Songlingornis
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    524393700001
    [116] † Pengornis
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    39017817100001
    [117] † Hesperornis
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    30825325300001
    [118] † Baptornis
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    481838000001
    [119] † Ichthyornis
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    28727927400001
    [120] † Iaceornis
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    474878700001
    [121] † Limenavis
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    527363400001
    [122] Crypturellus
    Last Modified in 12/22/17
    18138138000001
    [123] † Lithornis
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    27529328600001
    [124] Gallus
    Last Modified in 12/22/17
    17339038800001
    [125] Crax
    Last Modified in 12/22/17
    17238938900001
    [126] Anas
    Last Modified in 12/22/17
    18937437200001
    [127] Chauna
    Last Modified in 12/22/17
    17438838700001
    [128] † Hongshanornis
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    39217116900001
    [129] † Liaoningornis
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    508535300001
    [130] † Unenlagia
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    39216916900001
    [131] † Anchiornis
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    22333933800001
    [132] † Jinfengopteryx
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    38517617600001
    [133] † Eosinopteryx
    Last Modified in 01/17/18
    42613513500001


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    Project overview330
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    Bibliography88
    Taxon list1469
    Specimen list199
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    Matrix downloads11Data matrix of Foth & Rauhut (2017) (11 downloads);
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