Project 2537: Brian A. Atkinson. 2018. The critical role of fossils in inferring deep-node phylogenetic relationships and macroevolutionary patterns in Cornales. American Journal of Botany. 105:1-11.
Specimen: Nyssa sylvatica
View: Cross section

Abstract

Premise of the Study
The basal asterid order, Cornales, experienced a rapid radiation during the Cretaceous, which has made it difficult to elucidate the early evolution of the order using extant taxa only. Recent paleobotanical studies, however, have begun to shed light on the early diversification of Cornales. Herein, fossils are directly incorporated in phylogenetic and quantitative morphological analyses to reconstruct early cornalean evolution.

Methods
A morphological matrix of 77 fruit characters and 58 taxa (24 extinct) was assembled. Parsimony analyses including and excluding fossils were conducted. A fossil inclusive tree was time?scaled to visualize the timing of the initial cornalean radiation. Disparity analyses were utilized to infer the morphological evolution of cornaleans with drupaceous fruits.

Key Results
Fossil inclusive and exclusive parsimony analyses resulted in well?resolved deep?node relationships within Cornales. Resolution in the fossil inclusive analysis is substantially higher, revealing a basal grade including Loasaceae, Hydrangeaceae, Hydrostachyaceae, Grubbiaceae, a Hironoia+Amersinia clade, and Curtisiaceae, respectively, that leads to a ?core? group containing a clade comprising a Cretaceous grade leading to clade of Nyssaceae, Mastixiaceae, and Davidiaceae that is sister to a Cornaceae+Alangiaceae clade. The time?scaled tree indicates that the initial cornalean diversification occurred before 89.8 Ma. Disparity analyses suggest the morphological diversity of Cornales peaked during the Paleogene.

Conclusions
Phylogenetic analyses clearly demonstrate that novel character mosaics of Cretaceous cornaleans play a critical role in resolving deep?node relationships within Cornales. The post?Cretaceous increase of cornalean disparity is associated with a shift in morphospace occupation, which can be explained from ecological and developmental perspectives.



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Article DOI: doi.org/10.1002/ajb2.1084

Project DOI: 10.7934/P2537, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P2537
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 2 Matrices
  • 2 Documents
  • 58 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 80 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 12 MB

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 6782
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 140
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 182
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:140/0
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MorphoBank Project 2537

    This research
    supported by



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    Brian Atkinson
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 05/24/18
    1110000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M25556' (58 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] Cornus oblonga
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    06767010001
    [2] Cornus controversa
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    06666011001
    [3] Cornus sanguenea
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    0686809001
    [4] Cornus mas
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    06565012001
    [5] Cornus officinalis
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    06363014001
    [6] Cornus volkensii
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    46262011001
    [7] Cornus canadensis
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    06161016001
    [8] Cornus eydeana
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    14555508001
    [9] Cornus piggae
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    125353012001
    [10] Cornus multilocularis
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    125353012001
    [11] Cornus florida
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    06363014001
    [12] Cornus kousa
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    06262015001
    [13] Alangium chinense
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    26565010001
    [14] Alangium eydei
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    175050010001
    [15] Alangium vermontanum
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    164949012001
    [16] Alangium javanicum
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    36060014001
    [17] Alangium villosum
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    65555016001
    [18] Diplopanax stachyanthus
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    115353013001
    [19] Diplopanax eydei
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    45858015001
    [20] Mastixia philippenensis
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    26363012001
    [21] Retinomastixia schultei
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    184949010001
    [22] Mastixioidiocarpum oregonense
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    16535308001
    [23] Langtonia bisulcata
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    7616109001
    [24] Beckettia samuelis
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    392828010001
    [25] Davidia involucrata
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    06666011001
    [26] Davidia antiqua
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    95353015001
    [27] Drumheller fruit 1
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    154747015001
    [28] Camptotheca acuminata
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    25959016001
    [29] Nyssa sylvatica
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    06666011001
    [30] Nyssa ogeche
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    26262013001
    [31] Nyssa aquatica
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    16666010001
    [32] Nyssa talamancana
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    8616108001
    [33] Nyssa javanica
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    16666010001
    [34] Nyssa grayensis
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    19494909001
    [35] Nyssa spatulata
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    22464609001
    [36] Curtisia dentata
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    06363014001
    [37] Curtisia quadrilocularis
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    154848014001
    [38] Grubbia rosmarinifolia
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    95353015001
    [39] Hydrostachys spp.
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    11717059001
    [40] Hydrangea heteromalla
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    32525049001
    [41] Deutzia corymbosa
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    22727048001
    [42] Jamesia americana
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    32626048001
    [43] Philadelphus purpurascens
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    32626048001
    [44] Mentzelia dispersa
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    12525051001
    [45] Loasa sclareifolia
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    12525051001
    [46] Hironoia fusiformis
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    76060010001
    [47] Amersinia obtrullata
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    46262011001
    [48] Suciacarpa starrii
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    105454013001
    [49] Suciacarpa xiangae
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    135252012001
    [50] Eydeia hokkaidoensis
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    06565012001
    [51] Eydeia vancouverensis
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    145151012001
    [52] Edencarpa grandis
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    174545015001
    [53] Obamacarpa edenensis
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    26060015001
    [54] Drumheller fruit 2
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    155050012001
    [55] Sheltercarpa vancouverensis
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    333232012001
    [56] Hydrocera triflora
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    21717058001
    [57] Marcgravia nepenthoides
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    21918057001
    [58] Fouquieria columnaris
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    31717057001


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M25557' (48 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] Cornus oblonga
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    0555508001
    [2] Cornus controversa
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    0545409001
    [3] Cornus sanguenea
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    0565607001
    [4] Cornus mas
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    05353010001
    [5] Cornus officinalis
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    05151012001
    [6] Cornus volkensii
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    3515109001
    [7] Cornus canadensis
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    04949014001
    [8] Cornus eydeana
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    12454506001
    [9] Cornus piggae
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    94444010001
    [10] Cornus multilocularis
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    84545010001
    [11] Cornus florida
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    05151012001
    [12] Cornus kousa
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    05050013001
    [13] Alangium chinense
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    2535308001
    [14] Alangium eydei
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    12434308001
    [15] Alangium vermontanum
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    124141010001
    [16] Alangium javanicum
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    24949012001
    [17] Alangium villosum
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    44545014001
    [18] Diplopanax stachyanthus
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    94343011001
    [19] Diplopanax eydei
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    24848013001
    [20] Mastixia philippenensis
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    25151010001
    [21] Retinomastixia schultei
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    13424208001
    [22] Mastixioidiocarpum oregonense
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    11464606001
    [23] Langtonia bisulcata
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    4525207001
    [24] Beckettia samuelis
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    31242408001
    [25] Davidia involucrata
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    0545409001
    [26] Davidia antiqua
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    64444013001
    [27] Drumheller fruit 1
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    84242013001
    [28] Camptotheca acuminata
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    24747014001
    [29] Nyssa sylvatica
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    0545409001
    [30] Nyssa ogeche
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    25050011001
    [31] Nyssa aquatica
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    1545408001
    [32] Nyssa talamancana
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    6515106001
    [33] Nyssa javanica
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    1545408001
    [34] Nyssa grayensis
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    13434307001
    [35] Nyssa spatulata
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    16404007001
    [36] Curtisia dentata
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    05151012001
    [37] Curtisia quadrilocularis
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    94242012001
    [38] Grubbia rosmarinifolia
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    74343013001
    [39] Hironoia fusiformis
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    5505008001
    [40] Amersinia obtrullata
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    3515109001
    [41] Suciacarpa starrii
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    74545011001
    [42] Suciacarpa xiangae
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    104343010001
    [43] Eydeia hokkaidoensis
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    05353010001
    [44] Eydeia vancouverensis
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    104343010001
    [45] Edencarpa grandis
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    123838013001
    [46] Obamacarpa edenensis
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    14949013001
    [47] Drumheller fruit 2
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    104343010001
    [48] Sheltercarpa vancouverensis
    Last Modified in 07/10/18
    223131010001


    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views2414
    Project overview336
    Matrix views149Matrix landing page (132 views); (2 views); (1 view); (8 views); (2 views); Disparity matrix, with character states (3 views); Cornales fruit matrix, with character states (1 view);
    Taxon list1154
    Media views313Media search (272 views); M565540 (41 views);
    Specimen list182
    Views for media list101
    Documents list105
    Bibliography74




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project47
    Project downloads30
    Document downloads2Cornales fruit matrix (2 downloads);
    Matrix downloads15 (1 download); (1 download); (8 downloads); (1 download); Cornales fruit matrix, with character states (2 downloads); Disparity matrix, with character states (2 downloads);