Project 2607: Rose, K.D., L.T. Holbrook, K. Kumar, R.S. Rana, H.E. Ahrens, R.H. Dunn, A. Folie, K.E. Jones, T. Smith. 2020. Anatomy, relationships, and paleobiology of Cambaytherium (Mammalia, Perissodactylamorpha, Anthracobunia) from the lower Eocene of western India. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 39 (sup1):1-147.
Specimen: † Cambaytherium thewissi (unvouchered)
View: Restoration

Abstract

The anatomy of Cambaytherium, a primitive, perissodactyl-like mammal from the lower Eocene Cambay Shale Formation of Gujarat, India, is described in detail on the basis of more than 350 specimens that represent almost the entire dentition and the skeleton. Cambaytherium combines plesiomorphic traits typical of archaic ungulates such as phenacodontids with derived traits characteristic of early perissodactyls. Cambaytherium was a subcursorial animal better adapted for running than phenacodontids but less specialized than early perissodactyls. The cheek teeth are bunodont with large upper molar conules, not lophodont as in early perissodactyls; like perissodactyls, however, the lower molars have twinned metaconids and m3 has an extended hypoconulid lobe. A steep wear gradient with heavy wear in the middle of the tooth row suggests an abrasive herbivorous diet. Three species of Cambaytherium are recognized: C. thewissi (∼23 kg), C. gracilis (∼10 kg), and C. marinus (∼99 kg). Body masses were estimated from tooth size and long bone dimensions. Biostratigraphic and isotopic evidence indicates an age of ca. 54.5 Ma for the Cambay Shale vertebrate fauna, the oldest Cenozoic continental vertebrate assemblage from India, near or prior to the initial collision with Asia. Cambaytheriidae (also including Nakusia and Perissobune) and Anthracobunidae are sister taxa, constituting the clade Anthracobunia, which is sister to Perissodactyla. We unite them in a new higher taxon, Perissodactylamorpha. The antiquity and occurrence of Cambaytherium—the most primitive known perissodactylamorph—in India near or before its collision with Asia suggest that Perissodactyla evolved during the Paleocene on the Indian Plate or in peripheral areas of southern or southwestern Asia.


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Article DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2020.1761370

Project DOI: 10.7934/P2607, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P2607
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 2 Matrices
  • 74 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 321 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 86.61M

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 33244
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 642
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 827
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:642/0
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MorphoBank Project 2607

    This research
    supported by

    Authors' Institutions

    • Harvard University

    • Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences

    • Des Moines University

    • Johns Hopkins University

    • Rowan University

    • Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology

    • H.N.B. Garhwal University

    • High Point University



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    Luke Holbrook
    Project Administrator
    74116420033244
    (31982, 0, 1262)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M24453' (72 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] † Eotitanops
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    5925725507001
    [2] † Palaeosyops
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    930830606001
    [3] † Orohippus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    2229829801001
    [4] † Epihippus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    9722422301001
    [5] † Mesohippus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    631331302001
    [6] † Arenahippus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    7824624201001
    [7] † Eohippus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    4527627501001
    [8] † Protorohippus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    2229829801001
    [9] † Xenicohippus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    5526826501001
    [10] † Sifrippus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    15916816002001
    [11] † Pliolophus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    14018118001001
    [12] † Hyracotherium
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    18713313301001
    [13] † Palaeotherium
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    1230730504001
    [14] † Plagiolophus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    2928728507001
    [15] † Leptolophus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    15516416402001
    [16] † Ghazijhippus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    19013013001001
    [17] † Hallensia
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    5026926902001
    [18] † Propachynolophus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    18713713400001
    [19] † Propalaeotherium
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    3029629001001
    [20] † Lambdotherium
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    7424624502001
    [21] † Pachynolophus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    12419919700001
    [22] † Anchilophus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    12719519301001
    [23] † Lophiotherium
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    17115515000001
    [24] † Homogalax
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    4627527401001
    [25] † Cardiolophus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    9422922700001
    [26] † Eomoropus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    6225625603001
    [27] † Litolophus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    6825025003001
    [28] † Moropus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    12289287022001
    [29] † Lophiodon
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    31276276014001
    [30] † Isectolophus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    9023122902001
    [31] † Heptodon
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    2029829704001
    [32] † Helaletes
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    1430230106001
    [33] † Lophialetes
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    4027727704001
    [34] † Schlosseria
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    11919719705001
    [35] † Deperetella
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    112197196013001
    [36] † Teleolophus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    181131129011001
    [37] † Hyrachyus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    231231108001
    [38] † Phenacodus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    531431105001
    [39] † Ectocion
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    10721120905001
    [40] † Tetraclaenodon
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    7624223708001
    [41] † Meniscotherium
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    731330806001
    [42] † Cambaytherium thewissi
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    71244240010001
    [43] † Cambaytherium gracilis
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    17214914702001
    [44] † Nakusia
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    279414101001
    [45] † Perissobune
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    20412011700001
    [46] † Anthracobune pinfoldi
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    18613213203001
    [47] † Anthracobune wardi
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    19412812700001
    [48] † Obergfellia
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    230919100001
    [49] † Radinskya
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    21710210202001
    [50] † Phenacolophus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    21710210202001
    [51] † Olbitherium millenariusum
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    237848400001
    [52] † Eritherium
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    174138137010001
    [53] † Phosphatherium
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    14017317209001
    [54] † Moeritherium
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    57248245019001
    [55] † Numidotherium
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    72237237012001
    [56] † Seggeurius
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    19412212205001
    [57] † Dimaitherium
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    11420520106001
    [58] † Microhyrax
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    20311711701001
    [59] † Saghatherium
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    7124524406001
    [60] Orycteropus
    Last Modified in 02/02/17
    31921910127001
    [61] Elephantulus
    Last Modified in 02/02/17
    13286283025001
    [62] Petrodromus
    Last Modified in 02/02/17
    8294288025001
    [63] Rhynchocyon
    Last Modified in 02/02/17
    14291283024001
    [64] † Diacodexis
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    19290286016001
    [65] † Homacodon
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    111203200010001
    [66] † Vulpavus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    34268268019001
    [67] † Paramys
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    10268268043001
    [68] † Rhombomylus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    25262259037001
    [69] † Notharctus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    20289289012001
    [70] † Asioryctes
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    56245245020001
    [71] † Behemotops proteus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    20011911902001
    [72] Didelphis
    Last Modified in 02/02/17
    23282281017001


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M24454' (74 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] † Eotitanops
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    5925725507001
    [2] † Palaeosyops
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    930830606001
    [3] † Orohippus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    2229829801001
    [4] † Epihippus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    9722422301001
    [5] † Mesohippus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    631331302001
    [6] † Arenahippus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    7824624201001
    [7] † Eohippus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    4527627501001
    [8] † Protorohippus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    2229829801001
    [9] † Xenicohippus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    5526826501001
    [10] † Sifrippus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    15916816002001
    [11] † Pliolophus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    14018118001001
    [12] † Hyracotherium
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    18713313301001
    [13] † Palaeotherium
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    1230730504001
    [14] † Plagiolophus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    2928728507001
    [15] † Leptolophus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    15516416402001
    [16] † Ghazijhippus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    19013013001001
    [17] † Hallensia
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    5026926902001
    [18] † Propachynolophus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    18713713400001
    [19] † Propalaeotherium
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    3029629001001
    [20] † Lambdotherium
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    7424624502001
    [21] † Pachynolophus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    12419919700001
    [22] † Anchilophus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    12719519301001
    [23] † Lophiotherium
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    17115515000001
    [24] † Homogalax
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    4627527401001
    [25] † Cardiolophus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    9422922700001
    [26] † Eomoropus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    6225625603001
    [27] † Litolophus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    6825025003001
    [28] † Moropus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    12289287022001
    [29] † Lophiodon
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    31276276014001
    [30] † Isectolophus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    9023122902001
    [31] † Heptodon
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    2029829704001
    [32] † Helaletes
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    1430230106001
    [33] † Lophialetes
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    4027727704001
    [34] † Schlosseria
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    11919719705001
    [35] † Deperetella
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    112197196013001
    [36] † Teleolophus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    181131129011001
    [37] † Hyrachyus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    231231108001
    [38] † Phenacodus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    531431105001
    [39] † Ectocion
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    10721120905001
    [40] † Tetraclaenodon
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    7624223708001
    [41] † Meniscotherium
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    731330806001
    [42] † Cambaytherium thewissi
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    71244240010001
    [43] † Cambaytherium gracilis
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    17214914702001
    [44] † Nakusia
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    279414101001
    [45] † Perissobune
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    20412011700001
    [46] † Anthracobune pinfoldi
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    18613213203001
    [47] † Anthracobune wardi
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    19412812700001
    [48] † Obergfellia
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    230919100001
    [49] † Radinskya
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    21710210202001
    [50] † Phenacolophus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    21710210202001
    [51] † Minchenella
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    275464600001
    [52] † Quettacyonidae
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    228929102001
    [53] † Olbitherium millenariusum
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    237848400001
    [54] † Eritherium
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    174138137010001
    [55] † Phosphatherium
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    14017317209001
    [56] † Moeritherium
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    57248245019001
    [57] † Numidotherium
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    72237237012001
    [58] † Seggeurius
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    19412212205001
    [59] † Dimaitherium
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    11420520106001
    [60] † Microhyrax
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    20311711701001
    [61] † Saghatherium
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    7124524406001
    [62] Orycteropus
    Last Modified in 02/02/17
    31921910127001
    [63] Elephantulus
    Last Modified in 02/02/17
    13286283025001
    [64] Petrodromus
    Last Modified in 02/02/17
    8294288025001
    [65] Rhynchocyon
    Last Modified in 02/02/17
    14291283024001
    [66] † Diacodexis
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    19290286016001
    [67] † Homacodon
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    111203200010001
    [68] † Vulpavus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    34268268019001
    [69] † Paramys
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    10268268043001
    [70] † Rhombomylus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    25262259037001
    [71] † Notharctus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    20289289012001
    [72] † Asioryctes
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    56245245020001
    [73] † Behemotops proteus
    Last Modified in 11/24/20
    20011911902001
    [74] Didelphis
    Last Modified in 02/02/17
    23282281017001


    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views1440
    Project overview167
    Matrix views171Matrix landing page (92 views); Cambaythere matrix (38 views); Cambaythere matrix (41 views);
    Media views228Media search (198 views); M737892 (30 views);
    Views for media list72
    Specimen list110
    Taxon list649
    Bibliography42
    Documents list1




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project29
    Matrix downloads9Cambaythere matrix (5 downloads); Cambaythere matrix (4 downloads);
    Project downloads20