Project 262: B. Andres, Q. Ji. 2008. A new pterosaur from the Liaoning Province of China, the phylogeny of the Pterodactyloidea, and Convergence in their cervical vertebrae. Palaeontology. 51 (2):453-469.
Specimen: Elanodactylus prolatus (NGMC:99-07-1)

Abstract

The largest known flying organisms are the azhdarchid pterosaurs, a pterodactyloid clade previously diagnosed by the characters of their extremely elongate middle-series cervical vertebrae. The named species of the Azhdarchidae are from the Late Cretaceous. However, isolated mid-cervical vertebrae with similar dimensions and characters have been referred to this group that date back to the Late Jurassic, implying an almost 60 million year gap in the fossil record of this group and an unrecorded radiation in the Jurassic of all the major clades of the Pterodactyloidea. A new pterosaur from the Early Cretaceous of Liaoning Province of China, Elanodactylus prolatus gen. et sp. nov., is described with mid-cervical vertebrae that bear these azhdarchid characters but has other postcranial material that are distinct from the members of this group. Phylogenetic analysis of the new species and the Pterodactyloidea places it with the Late Jurassic vertebrae in the Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous Ctenochasmatidae and reveals that the characters of the elongate azhdarchid vertebrae appeared independently in both groups. These results are realized though the large taxon sampling in the analysis demonstrating that the homoplastic character states present in these two taxa were acquired in a different order in their respective lineages. Some of these homoplastic characters were previously thought to appear once in the history of pterosaurs and may be correlated to the extension of the neck regions in both groups. Because the homoplastic character states in the Azhdarchidae and Ctenochasmatidae are limited to the mid-cervical vertebrae, these states are termed convergent based on a definition of the term in a phylogenetic context. A number of novel results from the analysis presented produce a reorganization in the different species and taxa of the Pterodactyloidea.


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Article DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-4983.2008.00761.x

Project DOI: 10.7934/P262, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P262
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 1 Document
  • 110 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 111 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 1 MB

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 4047
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 111
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 273
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:111/0
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MorphoBank Project 262


    Members

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    Brian Andres
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 03/23/11
    1100001111004047
    (3527, 0, 520)
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    MorphoBank Curator
    Full membership
    Last logged in 06/18/15
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    Jacques Gauthier
    Full membership
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    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M685' (61 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
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    [1] Dimorphodon macronyx
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    148787010003
    [2] Campylognathoides liasicus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    79292012003
    [3] Rhamphorhynchus muensteri
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    29898011003
    [4] Anurognathus ammoni
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    40626209003
    [5] Gnathosaurus macrurus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    91202000003
    [6] Gnathosaurus subulatus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    54555502003
    [7] Plataleorhynchus streptophorodon
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    92171702003
    [8] Huanhepterus quingyangensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    68434300003
    [9] Elanodactylus prolatus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    77323202003
    [10] Kepodactylus insperatus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    93171701003
    [11] Mesadactylus ornithosphysos
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    92191801003
    [12] Beipiaopterus chenianus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    77333301003
    [13] Boreopterus cuiae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    47595905003
    [14] Feilongus youngi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    55545303003
    [15] Eosipterus yangi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    96151500003
    [16] Pterodaustro guinazui
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    15898907003
    [17] Ctenochasma elegans
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    13929107003
    [18] Ctenochasma porocristata
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    82272702003
    [19] Gegepterus changi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    46626104003
    [20] Cycnorhamphus suevicus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    16878708003
    [21] Gallodactylus canjuersensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    61464604003
    [22] "Pterodactylus" longicollum
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    15888709003
    [23] Pterodactylus kochi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    5989709003
    [24] Pterodactylus antiquus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3999909003
    [25] Germanodactylus cristatus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    21878703003
    [26] Germanodactylus rhamphastinus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    29797903003
    [27] Haopterus gracilis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    38686805003
    [28] Anhanguera piscator
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    1010010001003
    [29] Anhanguera santanae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    15959501003
    [30] Anhanguera blittersdorffi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    51565604003
    [31] Liaoningopterus gui
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    66464500003
    [32] Tropeognathus mesembrinus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    51565604003
    [33] Lonchodectes compressirostris
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    86232203003
    [34] Liaoxipterus brachyognathus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    94171700003
    [35] Nurhachius ignaciobritoi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    41676703003
    [36] Istiodactylus latidens
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    23797909003
    [37] Istiodactylus sinensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    30727209003
    [38] Pteranodon longiceps
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    09393018003
    [39] Pteranodon sternbergi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    484747016003
    [40] Nyctosaurus gracilis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    38585023003
    [41] Nyctosaurus bonneri
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    504444017003
    [42] Tupuxuara longicristatus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    851313013003
    [43] Tupuxuara leonardii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    138181017003
    [44] Thalassodromeus sethi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    524646013003
    [45] Tapejara imperator
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    613333017003
    [46] Tapejara navigans
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    653333013003
    [47] Tapejara wellnhoferi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    177474020003
    [48] Huaxiapterus jii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    335858020003
    [49] Sinopterus dongi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    247474013003
    [50] Sinopterus gui
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    475151013003
    [51] Eopteranodon lii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    435352016003
    [52] Noripterus complicidens
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    65464600003
    [53] "Phobetor" parvus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    53545404003
    [54] Dsungaripterus weii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    7989806003
    [55] Eoazhdarcho liaoxiensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    623434015003
    [56] Jidapterus edentus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    524343016003
    [57] Chaoyangopterus zhangi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    474948016003
    [58] Bakonydraco galaczi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    821414015003
    [59] Azhdarcho lancicollis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    742222015003
    [60] Zhejiangopterus linhaiensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    216968022003
    [61] Quetzalcoatlus sp.
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    157777019003


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