Project 2621: Lars Ramskold, Lars Werdelin. 1991. The Phylogeny and Evolution of Some Phacopid Trilobites. Cladistics. 7 (1):29-74.
Specimen: † Kainops invius (unvouchered)
View: fossilized exoskeleton

Abstract

A data matrix of 32 characters, with a total of 132 character states and 48 terminal taxa of phacopid trilobites, was analyzed using parsimony. The 108 most parsimonious trees have a length of 301 steps and consistency index of 0.29. Two major clades were found, one including species referred to Acernaspis and one with species referred to Ananaspis, Paciphacops, Viaphacops, and Phacops. Most homoplasy occurs between the major clades of the trees, rather than within them. The major clades were also analyzed separately, resulting in trees with significantly higher consistency indices. We redefine the following supraspecific taxa to make them monophyletic: Acernaspis, Ananaspis, and Paciphacops. In addition, Kainops, a new genus, is described for a clade consisting of six taxa previously assigned to Ananaspis and Paciphacops. The evolutionary pattern resulting from our cladogram is compared with the approaches of Campbell and Eldredge, and it is argued that some of the assumptions made by these authors regarding the phylogeny of the group are not valid. The biogeography of the group was also analysed. It is found that phacopids from the Ludlow and older strata are distributed globally, with an emphasis, perhaps due to a a large number of suitable localities, on Northern Europe. However, the lineage of phacopines leading up to Phacops is, with some slight exceptions, basically confined to the United States, being entirely absent in Nothern Europe. The main phacopine lineage does not re-establish itself geographically until the middle Devonian. Finally, we analysed the evidence for polymorphism in phacopid trilobites, and reject his hypothesis on the basis of stratigraphy and the present cladogram.


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Article DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.1991.tb00021.x

Project DOI: 10.7934/P2621, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P2621
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 48 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 32 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 1 MB

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 1275
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 32
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 121
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:32/0
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MorphoBank Project 2621


    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
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    Mary Pankowski
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 06/05/17
    480030001275
    (1275, 0, 0)
    000
    Thomas Hegna
    Full membership
    Last logged in 07/13/18
    0002000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M24518' (48 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
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    NPA
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    "-" cellscell images labels on
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    [1] † Hypothetical Ancestor
    Last Modified in 04/02/17
    2303000002
    [2] † Podowrinella
    Last Modified in 04/02/17
    5272700002
    [3] † Acernaspis quadrilineata
    Last Modified in 04/02/17
    1313100002
    [4] † Acernaspis woodburnensis
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    9232300002
    [5] † Acernaspis sufferta
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    5272700002
    [6] † Acernaspis sororia
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    2303000002
    [7] † Acernaspis konoverensis
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    7252500002
    [8] † Acernaspis boltoni
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    3292900002
    [9] † Acernaspis rectifrons
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    5272700002
    [10] † Acernaspis incerta
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    9232300002
    [11] † Acernaspis pulcher
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    11212100002
    [12] † Acernaspis becsciensis
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    12202000002
    [13] † Acernaspis superciliexcelsis
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    3292900002
    [14] † Acernaspis mimica
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    7252500002
    [15] † Acernaspis orestes
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    3292900002
    [16] † Acernaspis elliptifrons
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    10222200002
    [17] † Acernaspis xynon
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    8242400002
    [18] † Acernaspis rubicundula
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    1313100002
    [19] † Acernaspis skidmorei
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    15171700002
    [20] † Acernaspis dispersa
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    6262600002
    [21] † Acernaspis salmoensis
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    11212100002
    [22] † Acernaspis cf. stokesii
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    5272700002
    [23] † Ananaspis sp. nov.
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    5272700002
    [24] † Ananaspis macdonaldi
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    3292900002
    [25] † Ananaspis nuda
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    5272700002
    [26] † Ananaspis amelangorum
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    1313100002
    [27] † Ananaspis fecunda
    Last Modified in 08/06/18
    5272700002
    [28] † Ananaspis aspera
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    7252500002
    [29] † Ananaspis decora
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    4282800002
    [30] † Kainops guttulus
    Last Modified in 04/12/17
    2303000002
    [31] † Kainops ekphymus
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    7252500002
    [32] † Kainops microps
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    3292900002
    [33] † Kainops veles
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    3292900002
    [34] † Kainops invius
    Last Modified in 08/06/18
    4282800002
    [35] † Kainops raymondi
    Last Modified in 08/06/18
    2303000002
    [36] † Paciphacops serratus
    Last Modified in 04/14/17
    9232300002
    [37] † Paciphacops crossei
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    9232300002
    [38] † Paciphacops latigenalis
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    7252500002
    [39] † Paciphacops eldredgei
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    5272700002
    [40] † Paciphacops sp. nov
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    2303000002
    [41] † Paciphacops hudsonicus
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    2303000002
    [42] † Paciphacops logani
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    6262600002
    [43] † Paciphacops campbelli
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    1313100002
    [44] † Paciphacops birdsongensis
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    7252500002
    [45] † Paciphacops claviger
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    4282800002
    [46] † Viaphacops
    Last Modified in 08/06/18
    9232300002
    [47] † Phacops rana
    Last Modified in 08/06/18
    4282800002
    [48] † Phacops iowensis
    Last Modified in 04/30/17
    5272700002


    Project views

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    Total project views886
    Project overview175
    Media views208Media search (179 views); M585172 (29 views);
    Taxon list173
    Specimen list104
    Views for media list61
    Bibliography43
    Matrix views121Matrix landing page (104 views); Phacopid Trilobites (17 views);
    Documents list1




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    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project19
    Project downloads18
    Matrix downloads1Phacopid Trilobites (1 download);