Project 264: A. L. Wetterer, M. V. Rockman, N. B. Simmons. 2000. Phylogeny of phyllostomid bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera): data from diverse morphological systems, sex chromosomes, and restriction sites. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 248:1-200.
Specimen: Mimon bennettii (unvouchered)

Abstract

Phyllostomidae is a large (> 140 species), diverse clade of Neotropical bats. Different species in this family feed on blood, insects, vertebrates, nectar, pollen, and fruits. We investigated phylogenetic relationships among all genera of phyllostomid bats and tested monophyly of several genera (e.g., Micronycteris, Mimon, Artibeus, Vampyressa) using 150 morphological, karyological, and molecular characters. Results of parsimony analyses of these combined data indicate that all traditionally recognized phyllostomid subfamilies are monophyletic and that most taxa that share feeding specializations form clades. These results largely agree with studies that have used a taxonomic congruence approach to evaluate karyological, immunological, and limited sets of morphological characters, although our finding that Phyllostominae is monophyletic is novel. Our results indicate that several genera (Micronycteris, Artibeus, Vampyressa) are not monophyletic. We propose a new classification for Phyllostomidae that better reflects hypothesized evolutionary relationships. Important features of this new classification include: (1) formal recognition of two clades that group nectarivorous and frugivorous subfamilies, respectively, (2) redefinition of Glossophaginae and recognition of two tribal-level taxa within that subfamily, (3) recognition of several tribal-level taxa in Phyllostominae, (4) formal recognition of two clades that have been colloquially referred to as 'short-faced' and 'long-faced' stenodermatines, (5) elevation of the subgenera of Micronycteris to generic rank, (6) recognition of Mesophylla as a junior synonym of Ectophylla, (7) recognition of Enchisthenes as a distinct genus, and (8) retention of Dermanura and Koopmania as subgenera of Artibeus. Although Vampyressa is not monophyletic in our tree, we recommend no nomenclatural change because we did not include all Vampyressa species in our study. Comparisons of character and taxonomic congruence approaches indicate that character congruence provides improved resolution of relationships among phyllostomids. Many data sets are informative only at limited hierarchical levels or in certain portions of the phyllostomid tree. Although both chromosomal and immunological data provide additional support for several clades that we identified, these data sets are incongruent with many aspects of our phylogenetic results. These conflicts may be due to methodological constraints associated with the use of karyological and immunological data (e.g., problems with assessing homologies and distinguishing primitive from derived traits). Among other observations, we find that Macrotus waterhousii, which has been thought to have the primitive karyotype for the family, nests well within the phyllostomine clade. This suggests that results of previous analyses of chromosomal data may need to be reevaluated. Mapping characters and behaviors on our phylogenetic tree provides a context for evaluating hypotheses of evolution in Phyllostomidae. Although previous studies of uterine evolution in phyllostomids and other mammals have generally supported the unidirectional progressive fusion hypothesis, our results indicate that intermediate stages of external uterine fusion are often derived relative to the fully simplex condition, and that reversals also occur with respect to internal uterine fusion. Uterine fusion therefore appears to be neither completely unidirectional nor progressive in Phyllostomidae. Evolution of the vibrissae and noseleaf is similarly complex and homoplasy is common in these structures; however, many transformations in these systems diagnose clades of phyllostomids. Within Phyllostomidae, there is considerable derived reduction in numbers of vibrissae present in various vibrissal clusters. The phyllostomid noseleaf seems to have become a much more elaborate and complex structure over evolutionary time. Primitively within the family, the spear was short, the internarial region was flat, and the horseshoe was undifferentiated from the upper lip. Subsequently, within the various subfamilies, the spear became more elongate, the central rib and other internarial structures evolved, and the labial horseshoe became flaplike or cupped in some taxa. Dietary evolution in phyllostomids appears somewhat more complex than previously thought. We find that most of the major dietary guilds (e.g., frugivory, sanguivory) are represented by a single large clade within Phyllostomidae, indicating that each feeding specialization evolved once. However, reversals do occur (e.g., loss of nectar- and pollen-feeding in many phyllostomines and stenodermatines), and some specializations may have evolved more than once (e.g., carnivory)


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Project DOI: 10.7934/P264, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P264
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 69 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 150 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 1 MB

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 7576
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 150
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 375
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:150/0
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MorphoBank Project 264


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    Nancy Simmons
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 10/22/09
    691101500007576
    (6745, 0, 831)
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    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M675' (63 Taxa)

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    [1] Mormoops
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    18107106026001
    [2] Pteronotus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    17112107026001
    [3] Noctilio
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    [4] Desmodus
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    5121121024001
    [5] Diaemus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    507979021001
    [6] Diphylla
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    329898020001
    [7] Brachyphylla
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    10125125015001
    [8] Erophylla
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    29108108013001
    [9] Phyllonycteris
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    17121120013001
    [10] Anoura
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    11131128011001
    [11] Choeroniscus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    20119116014001
    [12] Choeronycteris
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    [13] Glossophaga
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    114014009001
    [14] Hylonycteris
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    30108108012001
    [15] Leptonycteris
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    8132132010001
    [16] Lichonycteris
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    33104104013001
    [17] Monophyllus
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    1712412409001
    [18] Musonycteris
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    [19] Scleronycteris
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    [20] Lionycteris
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    2212012008001
    [21] Lonchophylla
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    [22] Platalina
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    [23] Chrotopterus
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    [24] Micronycteris sylvestris
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
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    [25] Lonchorhina
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    [26] Macrophyllum
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    [27] Macrotus
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    413713709001
    [28] Micronycteris brachyotis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    568484010001
    [29] Micronycteris hirsuta
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    43999908001
    [30] Micronycteris megalotis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    4110010009001
    [31] Micronycteris minuta
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    42999909001
    [32] Mimon bennettii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    509090010001
    [33] Mimon crenulatum
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    36103103011001
    [34] Phylloderma
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    469292012001
    [35] Phyllostomus
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    [36] Tonatia
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    [37] Trachops
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    [38] Micronycteris nicefori
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    [39] Vampyrum
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    [40] Carollia
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    [41] Rhinophylla
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3710098015001
    [42] Artibeus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    3137133014001
    [43] Chiroderma
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    33111104013001
    [44] Dermanura
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    36110101013001
    [45] Ectophylla alba
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    488686016001
    [46] Mesophylla macconellii
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    [47] Enchisthenes
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    33103103014001
    [48] Koopmania
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    [49] Platyrrhinus
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    15127121014001
    [50] Uroderma
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    13123123014001
    [51] Vampyressa bidens
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    538484013001
    [52] Vampyressa nymphaea
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    419696013001
    [53] Vampyressa pusilla
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    28108108014001
    [54] Vampyrodes
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    32105105013001
    [55] Ametrida
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    35102102013001
    [56] Ardops
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    [57] Ariteus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
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    [58] Centurio
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
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    [59] Phyllops
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
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    [60] Pygoderma
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    [61] Stenoderma
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    [62] Sphaeronycteris
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    [63] Sturnira
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
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    Project overview2176
    Matrix views1325Matrix landing page (1085 views); Phyllostomid matrix (240 views);
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    Specimen list1672
    Taxon list8647




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    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project208
    Matrix downloads24Phyllostomid matrix (24 downloads);
    Project downloads180
    Media downloads4M26783 (4 downloads);