Project 2650: M. Martínez-Cáceres, O. Lambert, C. de Muizon. 2017. The anatomy and phylogenetic affinities of Cynthiacetus peruvianus, a large Dorudon-like basilosaurid (Cetacea, Mammalia) from the late Eocene of Peru. Geodiversitas. 39 (1):7-163.
Specimen: † Dorudon atrox (unvouchered)
View: skeleton

Abstract

Cynthiacetus peruvianus Martínez-Cáceres & Muizon, 2011 is a Dorudon-like basilosaurid (Cetacea, Basilosauridae), being one of the largest members of the family. The holotype of this species is a sub-complete skeleton, which comes from the late Eocene (Priabonian) of the Otuma Formation on the southern coast of Peru. A thorough description of this specimen is presented here. Cynthiacetus peruvianus differs from the other species of the genus (C. maxwelli) in having fewer accessory cusps on the distal and mesial edges of p3 and p4. Its skull shows the general pattern of the basilosaurid skull, which is relatively monotonous across the whole family, but it is much larger than those of Dorudon and Zygorhiza, and slightly smaller and distinctly more slender than that of Basilosaurus. The most characteristic features of C. peruvianus stand on the postcranial skeleton: it presents large vertebrarterial foramina on the cervical vertebrae; it lacks a ventral expansion of the transverse processes of C3-C5; it presents the greatest number of thoracic vertebrae (20) observed in cetaceans; and its first thoracics have an almost vertical neural spine. The second part of the monograph is devoted to evolutionary trends and phylogenetic relationships of Archaeocetes with a special focus on Basilosauridae. Some of the major trends considered concern, the rostrum morphology, the asymmetry of the rostrum, the supraorbital region, the neurocranium, the pelvic girdle and hind limb, and the chevrons. A parsimony analysis confirms the monophyly of the Basilosauridae, which are supported by four unambiguous synapomorphies: the presence of well-defined embrasure pits between the upper incisors, a narrow palate anterior to P4, a cleft on the mesial edge of the lower molars, and more than 13 thoracic vertebrae. In contrast with previous hypotheses, in which Saghacetus was the sister taxon of the Pelagiceti, the results of our analysis reveal this taxon as the most basal basilosaurid. In all the analyses performed Cynthiacetus forms a clade with Dorudon and Basilosaurus, being almost constantly the sister taxon of Basilosaurus.


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Article DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5252/g2017n1a1

Project DOI: 10.7934/P2650, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P2650
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 1 Document
  • 32 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 101 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 1 MB

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 2098
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 101
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 275
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:6/95
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MorphoBank Project 2650


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    member name taxa specimens media chars character
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    Last logged in 04/03/17
    3211101002098
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    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M24550' (32 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
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    scored
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    [1] † Pakicetidae
    Last Modified in 04/03/17
    41626000001
    [2] † Ambulocetidae
    Last Modified in 04/03/17
    67343400001
    [3] † Remingtonocetidae
    Last Modified in 04/03/17
    41616000001
    [4] † Artiocetus clavus
    Last Modified in 04/03/17
    34686700001
    [5] † Rodhocetus kasrani
    Last Modified in 04/03/17
    26777500001
    [6] † Carolinacetus gingerichi
    Last Modified in 04/03/17
    65373600001
    [7] † Protocetus atavus
    Last Modified in 04/03/17
    36656500001
    [8] † Georgiacetus vogtlensis
    Last Modified in 04/03/17
    13898800001
    [9] † Basilosaurus cetoides
    Last Modified in 04/03/17
    8939300001
    [10] † Basilosaurus isis
    Last Modified in 04/03/17
    26767500001
    [11] † Dorudon atrox
    Last Modified in 04/03/17
    5999600001
    [12] † Zygorhiza kochii
    Last Modified in 04/03/17
    12938900001
    [13] † Cynthiacetus peruvianus
    Last Modified in 04/03/17
    110010000001
    [14] † Chrysocetus healyorum
    Last Modified in 04/03/17
    78232300001
    [15] † Saghacetus osiris
    Last Modified in 04/03/17
    28747300001
    [16] † Ancalecetus simonsi
    Last Modified in 04/03/17
    64373700001
    [17] † MUSM 1917
    Last Modified in 04/03/17
    37656400001
    [18] † Mammalodon colliveri
    Last Modified in 04/03/17
    36666500001
    [19] † Janjucetus hunderi
    Last Modified in 04/03/17
    32696900001
    [20] † Aetiocetus weltoni
    Last Modified in 04/03/17
    32716900001
    [21] † Aetiocetus cotylalveus
    Last Modified in 04/03/17
    39626200001
    [22] † Chonecetus goedertorum
    Last Modified in 04/03/17
    41606000001
    [23] † ChM pv 5720
    Last Modified in 04/03/17
    33686800001
    [24] † Eomysticetus withmorei
    Last Modified in 04/03/17
    38646300001
    [25] † Simocetus rayii
    Last Modified in 04/03/17
    26767500001
    [26] † Agorophius spp
    Last Modified in 04/03/17
    50535100001
    [27] † Archaeodelphis patrius
    Last Modified in 04/03/17
    69323200001
    [28] † Xenorophus sloani
    Last Modified in 04/03/17
    64373700001
    [29] † Echovenator sandersii
    Last Modified in 04/03/17
    23787800001
    [30] † Albertocetus meffordorum
    Last Modified in 04/03/17
    50515100001
    [31] † Squalodon calvertensis
    Last Modified in 04/03/17
    26767500001
    [32] † Waipatia maerewhenua
    Last Modified in 04/03/17
    20828100001


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    Documents list311
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    Taxon list1682
    Bibliography160
    Specimen list402
    Views for media list255




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