Project 266: N. B. Simmons, T. M. Conway. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships of mormoopid bats (Chiroptera: Mormoopidae) based on morphological data. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 258:1-97.
Specimen: Pteronotus parnellii (unvouchered)


Mormoopidae is a small family of Neotropical microchiropteran bats that includes two genera (Mormoops and Pteronotus) and ten species, two of which are known only from fossils. Mormoopidae is typically classified as a member of Noctilionoidea, a group that minimally
includes two other Neotropical families (Phyllostomidae and Noctilionidae) and may also include Mystacinidae, a taxon endemic to New Zealand and Australia. Phylogenetic relationships of extant mormoopid species and one extinct taxon, Pteronotus pristinus, were investigated in a series of parsimony analyses of 209 morphological characters including features of the skull, dentition, vomeronasal organ complex and brain, trachea and hyoid apparatus, tongue, face, ears, pelage, patagia, postcranial skeleton, postcranial myology, reproductive tract, and digestive tract. Three extant phyllostomid species, two noctilionids, two mystacinids, and one emballonurid species were included as outgroups to test monophyly of Mormoopidae and to provide a context for determining the sister group of the family. Results of parsimony analyses under a variety of different assumption sets indicate that Mormoopidae is monophyletic, and that Pteronotus and Mormoops are monophyletic sister taxa. Within the genus Pteronotus, several clades were repeatedly recovered: (1) P. davyi P. gymnonotus (subgenus Pteronotus); (2) P. macleayi P. quadridens; (3) P. personatus P. macleayi P. quadridens (subgenus Chilonycteris); (4) P. parnellii P. pristinus P. personatus P. macleayi P. quadridens; and (5) P. parnellii P. pristinus ( subgenus Phyllodia). These results support monophyly of all subgenera of Pteronotus previously recognized, and additionally indicate that the subgenera Pteronotus and Chilonycteris are sister taxa. Comprehensive diagnoses for each species and clade of Mormoopidae are provided based on character optimizations and ancillary morphometric data from the literature. Results of our parsimony analyses also have implications for understanding higher-level phylogeny of noctilionoid bats. Monophyly of each of the traditionally recognized families (i.e., Noctilionidae, Mystacinidae, Mormoopidae, and Phyllostomidae) was strongly supported. In congruence with recent analyses of mitochondrial gene-sequence data and DNA hybridization experiments, we found strong support for inclusion of Mystacinidae in Noctilionoidea. Using an emballonurid species to root the tree, we found the following interfamilial relationships of noctilionoids: (Noctilionidae (Mystacinidae (Phyllostomidae, Mormoopidae))). Lists of morphological synapomorphies of each of these groups are provided based on character optimizations.

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Project DOI: 10.7934/P266,
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 26 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 209 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 4.16M

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Total scored cells: 2911
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Total characters: 209
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 537
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:209/0
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MorphoBank Project 266

    Authors' Institutions

    • American Museum of Natural History


    member name taxa specimens media media
    chars character
    notes  media
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    notes  medialabels
    Nancy Simmons
    Project Administrator
    (2876, 0, 35)

    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M677' (17 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    no cell
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    [1] Saccopteryx bilineata
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [2] Noctilio albiventris
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [3] Noctilio leporinus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [4] Mystacina robusta
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [5] Mystacina tuberculata
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [6] Macrotus waterhousii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [7] Macrotus californicus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [8] Artibeus jamaicensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [9] Pteronotus parnellii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [10] Pteronotus pristinus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [11] Pteronotus personotus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [12] Pteronotus macleayii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [13] Pterontous quadridens
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [14] Pteronotus davyi
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [15] Pteronotus gymnonotus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [16] Mormoops blainvillii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    [17] Mormoops megalophylla
    Last Modified in 12/05/13

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    Total project views18830
    Project overview3357
    Media views4107Media search (3521 views); M26814 (586 views);
    Matrix views1924Matrix landing page (1666 views); Mormoopid data (258 views);
    Taxon list7088
    Specimen list2354

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    Media downloads1M26814 (1 download);
    Document downloads22D Procrustes Coordinates from braincase, plus morphology and molecules (1 download); Procrustes Coordinates from eustachian system analysis, plus morphology and molecules (1 download);