Project 2749: C. Ji, D. Jiang, R. Motani, O. Rieppel, W. Hao, Z. Sun. 2016. Phylogeny of the Ichthyopterygia incorporating recent discoveries from South China. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 36 (1):e1025956.
Specimen: † Utatsusaurus hataii (usnm/paleobiology:pal559349)
View: dentition

Abstract

During the last decade, abundant ichthyopterygian material has been found from the Triassic of South China as well as the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous of Europe and South America, significantly expanding our knowledge of ichthyopterygian diversity through the Mesozoic. Previous phylogenetic hypotheses of the group no longer account for these extensive additions, necessitating a new phylogenetic framework for the entire Ichthyopterygia to enable evolutionary studies of the group. We present here a comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis for Ichthyopterygia based on cladistic analysis of 163 characters coded for 59 ingroup and five outgroup taxa. The monophyly of Ichthyopterygia is strongly supported by a Bremer index value of 7. Five major groups of Ichthyopterygia during the Triassic, viz., Grippioidea, Cymbospondylidae, Mixosauridae, Shastasauridae, and Toretocnemidae, are well supported by Bremer index values between 3 and 5. Major clades that evolved in the Triassic, including Merriamosauria, Euichthyosauria, and Parvipelvia, are also robustly supported, whereas most post-Triassic clades are very weakly supported with a Bremer index value of 1, with a few exceptions, such as Thunnosauria and Ophthalmosauridae. The traditional Shastasauridae is expanded to comprise six genera but excludes Callawayia, which is more closely related to Parvipelvia than to Shastasauridae. ‘C.’ wolonggangensis is a shastasaurid but does not form a monophyletic clade with Callawayia neoscapularis or Guizhouichthyosaurus tangae as previously asserted. The new phylogenetic hypothesis is generally consistent with the stratigraphic occurrences of each taxon especially for the Triassic taxa.


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Article DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2015.1025956

Project DOI: 10.7934/P2749, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P2749
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 2 Documents
  • 67 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 163 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 742.96k

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 6068
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 163
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 366
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:163/0
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MorphoBank Project 2749

    Authors' Institutions

    • Beijing University (Peking University)

    • Chinese Academy of Sciences

    • University of California Davis

    • Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences

    • Field Museum of Natural History



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
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    (scored, NPA, "-")
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    Cheng Ji
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in Never
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    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M26609' (64 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
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    [1] † Petrolacosaurus
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    815515500001
    [2] † Thadeosaurus
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    73909000001
    [3] † Claudiosaurus
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    2214114100001
    [4] † Hovasaurus
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    4711611600001
    [5] † Hupehsuchus
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    4212112100001
    [6] † Utatsusaurus
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    1215115100001
    [7] † Grippia
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    5311011000001
    [8] † Gulosaurus
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    83808000001
    [9] † Chaohusaurus
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    1614814700001
    [10] † Mixosaurus panxianensis
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    1914414400001
    [11] † Mixosaurus cornalianus
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    2513813800001
    [12] † Mixosaurus kuhnschnyderi
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    140232300001
    [13] † Phalarodon atavus
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    5910510400001
    [14] † Phalarodon fraasi
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    101626200001
    [15] † Phalarodon callawayi
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    114494900001
    [16] † Cymbospondylus piscosus
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    3113213200001
    [17] † Cymbospondylus buchseri
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    101626200001
    [18] † Cymbospondylus nichollsi
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    117464600001
    [19] † Xinminosaurus
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    68959500001
    [20] † Besanosaurus
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    78858500001
    [21] † Guizhouichthyosaurus
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    2613813700001
    [22] † "Callawayia" wolonggangensis
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    72939100001
    [23] † Guanlingsaurus
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    3512912800001
    [24] † Shastasaurus
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    67969600001
    [25] † Shonisaurus popularis
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    75888800001
    [26] † Shonisaurus sikanniensis
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    115484800001
    [27] † Californosaurus
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    104595900001
    [28] † Toretocnemus
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    83808000001
    [29] † Qianichthyosaurus zhoui
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    3612812700001
    [30] † Qianichthyosaurus xingyiensis
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    6210110100001
    [31] † Callawayia
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    3712712600001
    [32] † Hudsonelpidia
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    111525200001
    [33] † Macgowania
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    88757500001
    [34] † Suevoleviathan
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    2913713400001
    [35] † Leptonectes tenuirostris
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    1415014900001
    [36] † Leptonectes moorei
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    66989700001
    [37] † Leptonectes solei
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    82818100001
    [38] † Excalibosaurus
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    4511811800001
    [39] † Eurhinosaurus
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    1814514500001
    [40] † Hauffiopteryx
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    5510810800001
    [41] † Ichthyosaurus
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    116716200001
    [42] † Stenopterygius
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    216616100001
    [43] † Temnodontosaurus
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    416315900001
    [44] † Aegirosaurus
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    5011411300001
    [45] † Acamptonectes
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    113505000001
    [46] † Maiaspondylus
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    123404000001
    [47] † Arthropterygius
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    120434300001
    [48] † Athabascasaurus
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    102616100001
    [49] † Sveltonectes
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    4611711700001
    [50] † Brachypterygius
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    99646400001
    [51] † Caypullisaurus
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    80838300001
    [52] † Platypterygius australis
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    2314114000001
    [53] † Platypterygius americanus
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    78858500001
    [54] † Cryopterygius
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    5211111100001
    [55] † Ophthalmosaurus icenicus
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    715915600001
    [56] † Ophthalmosaurus natans
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    5410910900001
    [57] † Malawania
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    122414100001
    [58] † Chacaicosaurus
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    126373700001
    [59] † Mollesaurus
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    125383800001
    [60] † Parvinatator
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    110535300001
    [61] † Leninia
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    133303000001
    [62] † Thalattoarchon
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    122414100001
    [63] † Palvennia
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    132313100001
    [64] † Sisteronia
    Last Modified in 04/30/20
    143202000001


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