Project 2794: E. Vlachos. 2018. A Review of the Fossil Record of North American Turtles of the Clade Pan-Testudinoidea. Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History. 59 (1):3-94.
Specimen: Geoclemys hamiltonii (unvouchered)
View: right anterolateral

Abstract

Turtles of the clade Pan-Testudinoidea have a rich fossil record in North America, including the Caribbean, ranging from the late Paleocene to the Holocene. All earlier reports cannot be substantiated herein. The earliest members of this clade probably immigrated in multiple waves from Asia. Current phylogenies of crown Testudinoidea recognize four primary clades: Pan-Emydidae, Pan-Geoemydidae, Pan-Testudinidae, and the lineage leading to Platysternon megacephalum. An updated global phylogeny allows attribution of fossils to these lineages with confidence that allows the discernment of new diversity trends and biogeographic patterns. The diversity of North American Pan-Testudinidae increased consistently throughout the Cenozoic and reached its peak in the early Miocene. The extinction of many testudinids at the end of the Pleistocene, however, decreased tortoise diversity toward its extant levels. The diversity of North American Pan-Emydidae and Pan-Geoemydidae shows opposite patterns. Pan-Emydidae are remarkably diverse today, but their diversity was low in the Eocene and only increased dramatically from the Oligocene and onwards. Pan-Geoemydidae, on the other side, were diverse in the late Paleocene to Eocene, but their diversity decreases to their extremely low present levels starting with the Oligocene. A taxonomic review of 191 named North and Central American pan-testudinoid taxa finds 57 nomina valida, 69 nomina invalida, 64 nomina dubia, and 1 nomen nudum.


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Article DOI: 10.3374/014.058.0201

Project DOI: 10.7934/P2794, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P2794
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 10 Documents
  • 114 Taxa
  • 2 Specimens
  • 170 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 1 MB

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Total scored cells: 11894
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 170
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 397
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:145/25
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    Evangelos Vlachos
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 04/23/18
    114211170010011894
    (11480, 0, 414)
    031000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M24931' (113 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
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    [1] Pleurodira
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    23148126021001
    [2] Chelydra serpentina
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    5150148017001
    [3] Kinosternon odoratus
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    3155155012001
    [4] Caretta caretta
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    728888010001
    [5] Apalone spinifera
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    279494049001
    [6] Platysternon megacephalum
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    1215115107001
    [7] Cuora amboinensis
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    2414213907001
    [8] Heosemys annandalei
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    77919003001
    [9] Rhinoclemmys annulata
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    87838102001
    [10] Batagur baska
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    416416204001
    [11] Sacalia bealei
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    2114814405001
    [12] Orlitia borneensis
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    6110910702001
    [13] Callagur borneoensis
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    4512112005001
    [14] Mauremys caspica
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    716115705001
    [15] Siebenrockiella crassicollis
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    1615014806001
    [16] Cyclemys dentata
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    90797901001
    [17] Cuora flavomarginata
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    95757302001
    [18] Heosemys grandis
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    96787301001
    [19] Geoclemys hamiltonii
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    2514013906001
    [20] Kachuga kachuga
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    97727201001
    [21] Cuora mouhotii
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    96767301001
    [22] Notochelys platynota
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    95747302001
    [23] Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    691009803001
    [24] Mauremys reevesii
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    1614714608001
    [25] Mauremys sinensis
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    4012812604001
    [26] Geoemyda spengleri
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    98727101001
    [27] Malayemys subtrijuga
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    3213513206001
    [28] Pangshura tentoria
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    73969601001
    [29] Hardella thurjii
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    95747401001
    [30] Melanochelys trijuga
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    6011010703001
    [31] Graptemys barbouri
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    68989705001
    [32] Emydoidea blandingii
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    1614614509001
    [33] Clemmys guttata
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    3812712705001
    [34] Chrysemys picta
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    116516207001
    [35] Emys orbicularis
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    3113413108001
    [36] Terrapene ornata
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    4412211808001
    [37] Deirochelys reticularia
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    1714614607001
    [38] Trachemys scripta
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    816015804001
    [39] Malaclemmys terrapin
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    84898402001
    [40] Pseudemys texana
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    2714213904001
    [41] Gopherus agassizii
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    816415903001
    [42] Chelonoidis carbonaria
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    018815503001
    [43] Chelonoidis chilensis
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    418316303001
    [44] Chelonoidis denticulata
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    019616603001
    [45] Geochelone elegans
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    5311711403001
    [46] Indotestudo elongata
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    2614514202001
    [47] Manouria emys
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    701019801001
    [48] Kinixys erosa
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    12148140011001
    [49] Gopherus flavomarginatus
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    816115903001
    [50] Indotestudo forstenii
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    316516303001
    [51] Testudo graeca
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    217916304001
    [52] Chersine hermanni
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    616816102001
    [53] Kinixys homeana
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    2913413308001
    [54] Agrionemys horsfieldii
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    5811611002001
    [55] Manouria impressa
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    2913813803001
    [56] Testudo kleinmanni
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    3113913305001
    [57] Testudo marginata
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    79978902001
    [58] Chelonoidis nigra
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    217316503001
    [59] Psammobates oculifera
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    73979601001
    [60] Stigmochelys pardalis
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    1315715403001
    [61] Gopherus polyphemus
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    616516103001
    [62] Astrochelys radiata
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    916015902001
    [63] Centrochelys sulcata
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    217116502001
    [64] Malacochersus tornieri
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    2152150018001
    [65] † Chelonoidis alburyorum
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    5112111603001
    [66] † Chelonoidis monensis
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    151191900001
    [67] † Cymatholcus schucherti
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    150191901001
    [68] † Floridemys nanus
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    107626201001
    [69] † Geochelone costaricensis
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    112585800001
    [70] † Gopherus auffenbergi
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    110595901001
    [71] † Gopherus brevisternus
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    102686800001
    [72] † Gopherus edae
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    115555401001
    [73] † Gopherus donlaloi
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    73969502001
    [74] † Gopherus hexagonatus
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    115545401001
    [75] † Gopherus hollandi
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    108636101001
    [76] † Gopherus mohavensis
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    116535301001
    [77] † Hadrianus corsoni
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    104666301001
    [78] † Hadrianus majusculus
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    132373701001
    [79] † Hesperotestudo bermudae
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    96777400001
    [80] † Hesperotestudo brontops
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    108626101001
    [81] † Hesperotestudo crassiscutata
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    103676500001
    [82] † Hesperotestudo gilbertii
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    124454501001
    [83] † Hesperotestudo orthopygia
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    5611311301001
    [84] † Hesperotestudo osborniana
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    5611611400001
    [85] † Hesperotestudo turgida
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    6910210100001
    [86] † Hesperotestudo williamsi
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    109616100001
    [87] † Oligopherus laticuneus
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    87828201001
    [88] † Stylemys capax
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    108626200001
    [89] † Stylemys inusitata
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    117535300001
    [90] † Stylemys nebrascensis
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    5112011801001
    [91] † Acherontemys heckmanni
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    131393900001
    [92] † Echmatemys callopyge
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    105636302001
    [93] † Echmatemys haydeni
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    105666302001
    [94] † Echmatemys jeanesi
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    107626102001
    [95] † Echmatemys lativertebralis
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    105646302001
    [96] † Echmatemys naomi
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    105636302001
    [97] † Echmatemys stevensoniana
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    103656502001
    [98] † Echmatemys wyomingensis
    Last Modified in 04/23/18
    105646302001
    [99] † Rhinoclemmys panamaensis
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    130393802001
    [100] † Chrysemys timida
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    131393900001
    [101] † Clemmys morrisiae
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    118525101001
    [102] † Emydoidea hutchisoni
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    141282702001
    [103] † Glyptemys valentinensis
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    107616102001
    [104] Graptemys kerneri
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    91727207001
    [105] † Pseudemys carri
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    116525202001
    [106] † Pseudemys williamsi
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    112565602001
    [107] † Psilosemys wyomingensis
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    105636302001
    [108] † Terrapene eurypygia
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    124434303001
    [109] † Terrapene parornata
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    111555504001
    [110] † Trachemys antiqua
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    105656401001
    [111] † Trachemys idahoensis
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    6710010003001
    [112] † Trachemys sculpta
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    113565601001
    [113] † Cardichelyon rogerwoodi
    Last Modified in 12/31/17
    105696401001


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    Total project views3275
    Project overview320
    Media views458Media search (369 views); M508219 (89 views);
    Matrix views304Matrix landing page (263 views); Morphological matrix of the North American pan-testudinoids analysed in the study (41 views);
    Views for media list236
    Taxon list1366
    Documents list161
    Specimen list321
    Bibliography109




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project73
    Matrix downloads16Morphological matrix of the North American pan-testudinoids analysed in the study (16 downloads);
    Project downloads47
    Document downloads8Supplement to the trees (2 downloads); Trees, equal weights, Pan-Testudinidae (2 downloads); Trees, implied weights, Pan-Testudinidae (1 download); Trees, equal weights, all taxa (1 download); Trees, implied weights, k=3, all taxa (1 download); Trees, implied weights, k=5, all taxa (1 download);
    Media downloads2M508219 (2 downloads);