Project 3123: R.A. Gomez, D.R. Maddison. 2020. Novelty and emergent patterns in sperm: Morphological diversity and evolution of spermatozoa and sperm conjugation in ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Journal of Morphology. 281 (8):862-892.
Specimen: Clivina fossor (Linnaeus, 1758) (/RAGspcmn0000000542)
View: Merged image of DIC and DAPI-stained sperm

Abstract

The beetle family Carabidae, with about 40,000 species, exhibits enough diversity in sperm structure and behavior to be an excellent model system for studying patterns and processes of evolution. We explore their potential, documenting sperm form in 177 species of ground beetles using light microscopy and collecting data on one qualitative and seven quantitative phenotypic traits. Our sampling captures 61% of the tribal‐level diversity of ground beetles. These data highlight the notable morphological diversity of sperm in ground beetles and suggest that sperm in the group have dynamic evolutionary histories with much morphological innovation and convergence. Sperm vary among species in total length (48–3,400 μm), head length (0.5–270 μm), and head width (0.2–6.3 μm). Most ground beetles make sperm with heads that are indistinct from the flagella at the gross morphological level. However, some or all Omophron, Trachypachus, and Dyschiriini make broad‐headed sperm that show morphological differences between species. Most ground beetles package their sperm into groups of sperm, termed conjugates, and ground beetles show variation in conjugate form and in the number and arrangement of sperm in a conjugate. Most ground beetles make sperm conjugates by embedding their sperm in a hyaline rod or spermatostyle. The spermatostyle is remarkably variable among species and varies in length from 17 to 41,000 μm. Several unrelated groups of ground beetles make only singleton sperm, including Nebriinae, Cicindelinae, many Trechinae, and the tribe Paussini. In order to study patterns in sperm evolution, we combine these data with a low‐resolution phylogeny of ground beetles. Results from modern comparative analyses suggest the following: (a) sperm differ from conjugates in some aspect of their underlying evolutionary process, (b) sperm have influenced conjugate evolution and vice versa, and (c) conjugation with a spermatostyle likely evolved early within the history of Carabidae and it has been lost independently at least three times.


Read the article »

Article DOI: 10.1002/jmor.21144

Project DOI: 10.7934/P3123, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P3123
This project contains
  • 6676 Media
  • 177 Folios
  • 177 Taxa
  • 397 Specimens
Total size of project's media files: 1.62G

Download Project SDD File
Currently Viewing:
MorphoBank Project 3123

    This research
    supported by

    Authors' Institutions

    • Oregon State University



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media
    R. Antonio Gomez
    Project Administrator
    1773976676


    Project has no matrices defined.



    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views164685
    Project overview1495
    Media views49526Media search (2474 views); M585722 (154 views); M585646 (227 views); M585716 (149 views); M585715 (145 views); M585574 (314 views); M585575 (332 views); M585576 (325 views); M585577 (320 views); M585578 (316 views); M585579 (324 views); M585580 (312 views); M585581 (315 views); M585584 (313 views); M585585 (310 views); M585588 (309 views); M585589 (299 views); M585590 (307 views); M585591 (293 views); M585592 (289 views); M585594 (293 views); M585595 (297 views); M585596 (287 views); M585597 (288 views); M585598 (297 views); M585599 (314 views); M585600 (291 views); M585601 (298 views); M585602 (304 views); M585603 (300 views); M585604 (288 views); M585605 (291 views); M585606 (309 views); M585607 (297 views); M585608 (357 views); M585609 (291 views); M585610 (307 views); M585612 (296 views); M585613 (300 views); M585614 (294 views); M585615 (299 views); M585616 (306 views); M585617 (303 views); M585618 (296 views); M585619 (297 views); M585620 (297 views); M585621 (278 views); M585622 (288 views); M585623 (274 views); M585624 (270 views); M585625 (274 views); M585626 (273 views); M585627 (279 views); M585628 (271 views); M585629 (257 views); M585630 (256 views); M585631 (255 views); M585632 (257 views); M585633 (234 views); M585634 (233 views); M585635 (278 views); M585636 (231 views); M585638 (227 views); M585639 (208 views); M585640 (229 views); M585641 (248 views); M585642 (236 views); M585643 (248 views); M585644 (244 views); M585645 (246 views); M585647 (241 views); M585648 (235 views); M585649 (236 views); M585650 (227 views); M585651 (233 views); M585652 (232 views); M585653 (240 views); M585654 (238 views); M585655 (235 views); M585656 (242 views); M585657 (239 views); M585658 (233 views); M585659 (239 views); M585660 (243 views); M585662 (232 views); M585663 (247 views); M585664 (250 views); M585665 (230 views); M585666 (232 views); M585667 (264 views); M585668 (256 views); M585669 (236 views); M585670 (247 views); M585671 (235 views); M585672 (246 views); M585673 (226 views); M585674 (242 views); M585675 (235 views); M585676 (241 views); M585677 (239 views); M585678 (235 views); M585679 (245 views); M585680 (258 views); M585681 (232 views); M585682 (161 views); M585683 (171 views); M585684 (165 views); M585685 (163 views); M585686 (167 views); M585687 (159 views); M585688 (163 views); M585689 (164 views); M585690 (166 views); M585691 (156 views); M585692 (183 views); M585693 (168 views); M585694 (156 views); M585695 (156 views); M585696 (158 views); M585697 (153 views); M585698 (137 views); M585699 (145 views); M585700 (136 views); M585701 (149 views); M585703 (143 views); M585704 (141 views); M585705 (147 views); M585706 (135 views); M585707 (141 views); M585708 (162 views); M585709 (162 views); M585712 (155 views); M585713 (152 views); M585714 (150 views); M585717 (136 views); M585718 (142 views); M585719 (143 views); M585720 (160 views); M585721 (141 views); M585723 (134 views); M585724 (144 views); M585725 (171 views); M585727 (164 views); M585728 (162 views); M585729 (158 views); M585730 (162 views); M585731 (165 views); M585732 (153 views); M585733 (174 views); M585734 (168 views); M585735 (165 views); M585779 (158 views); M585780 (162 views); M585781 (165 views); M585782 (152 views); M585783 (157 views); M585784 (154 views); M585785 (163 views); M585786 (153 views); M585787 (161 views); M585788 (159 views); M585789 (162 views); M585790 (172 views); M585791 (159 views); M585792 (164 views); M585793 (158 views); M585794 (154 views); M585795 (153 views); M585796 (155 views); M585797 (156 views); M585798 (154 views); M585799 (158 views); M585800 (157 views); M585801 (153 views); M585802 (150 views); M585803 (163 views); M585804 (151 views); M585805 (158 views); M585806 (165 views); M585807 (164 views); M585808 (175 views); M585809 (156 views); M585810 (159 views); M585811 (166 views); M585812 (151 views); M585813 (138 views); M585814 (144 views); M585815 (161 views); M585816 (153 views); M585817 (157 views); M585818 (160 views); M585819 (166 views); M585820 (177 views); M585821 (159 views); M585822 (172 views); M585823 (157 views); M585824 (157 views); M585825 (152 views); M585826 (154 views); M585827 (153 views); M585828 (159 views); M585829 (174 views); M585830 (157 views); M585831 (165 views); M585832 (164 views); M585833 (160 views); M585834 (161 views); M585835 (173 views); M585836 (157 views); M585837 (148 views); M585838 (156 views); M585839 (163 views); M585888 (154 views); M585889 (174 views); M585890 (166 views); M585891 (167 views); M585892 (155 views); M585893 (151 views); M585894 (162 views); M585895 (156 views); M585896 (154 views); M585897 (167 views); M585898 (163 views); M585899 (162 views); M585900 (149 views); M585901 (171 views); M590503 (1 view); M587935 (1 view); M592565 (1 view); M592564 (2 views); M586350 (1 view); M586354 (2 views); M586407 (1 view); M586395 (1 view); M585974 (3 views); M592426 (3 views); M592423 (1 view); M585916 (7 views); M585972 (2 views); M585961 (20 views); M585952 (2 views); M585937 (2 views); M585962 (19 views); M585912 (2 views); M585951 (2 views); M585930 (2 views); M585946 (2 views); M585903 (10 views); M585906 (5 views); M585965 (2 views); M585932 (2 views); M585924 (14 views); M585909 (10 views); M585963 (2 views); M585914 (24 views); M585955 (2 views); M585917 (6 views); M585971 (10 views); M585925 (20 views); M585934 (2 views); M585918 (2 views); M585947 (2 views); M585959 (2 views); M585911 (8 views); M585950 (2 views); M585975 (16 views); M585957 (2 views); M585913 (11 views); M585933 (2 views); M585973 (3 views); M585941 (2 views); M585905 (11 views); M585929 (2 views); M585931 (2 views); M585954 (4 views); M585938 (2 views); M585942 (3 views); M585968 (14 views); M585960 (2 views); M585923 (3 views); M585935 (2 views); M585902 (2 views); M585949 (2 views); M585910 (29 views); M585966 (2 views); M585964 (2 views); M585956 (1 view); M585921 (2 views); M585939 (2 views); M585940 (2 views); M585969 (2 views); M585908 (8 views); M585927 (2 views); M585926 (3 views); M585945 (3 views); M585970 (7 views); M585922 (2 views); M585958 (15 views); M585919 (3 views); M585944 (2 views); M585915 (2 views); M585920 (3 views); M585948 (2 views); M585976 (2 views); M585907 (13 views); M585904 (13 views); M585943 (1 view); M585936 (1 view); M585928 (1 view); M585967 (1 view); M585953 (1 view); M586833 (1 view); M586848 (1 view);
    Specimen list97724
    Taxon list6024
    Views for media list1940
    Folio views7441Folio list (709 views); Abacetus sp. (348 views); Abaris splendidula (306 views); Agra sp. 1 (278 views); Agra sp. 2 (295 views); Akephorus obesus (295 views); Amara aenea (317 views); Amara farcta (290 views); Anatrichis minuta (297 views); Anisodactylus alternans (303 views); Anisodactylus similis (387 views); Anthia sp. (310 views); Apenes lucidula (318 views); Apotomus sp. (392 views); Anillini gen. nov. sp. nov. (302 views); Agonum piceolum (305 views); Agonum muelleri (318 views); Ardistomis obliquata (306 views); Ardistomis schaumii (297 views); Aspidoglossa subangulata (311 views); Anisodactylus anthracinus (293 views); Calosoma peregrinator (17 views); Bembidion zephyrum (21 views); Bembidion kuprianovi #2 (6 views); Calleida decora (15 views); Blethisa oregonensis (12 views); Brachinus ichabodopsis (17 views); Broscodera insignis (10 views); Bradycellus sp. (13 views); Bembidion haplogonum (6 views); Badister ferrugineus (5 views); Bembidion incrematum (3 views); Calleida sp. 1 (9 views); Bembidion sejunctum (5 views); Bembidion obliquulum (20 views); Calathus peropacus (7 views); Brasiella wickhami (11 views); Cyclotrachelus dejeanellus (19 views); Chlaenius ruficauda (4 views); Chlaenius cumatilis (15 views); Carabus taedatus (6 views); Cymindis punctifera (11 views); Carabus nemoralis (6 views); Clinidium sp. nr. guatemalenum (32 views); Bradycellus sp. 2 (15 views); Chlaenius leucoscelis (7 views); Chlaenius prasinus (5 views); Chlaenius harpalinus (20 views); Colliuris pensylvanica (8 views); Chlaenius tricolor (36 views); Catapiesis sp. (4 views); Cicindela haemorrhagica (10 views); Cerapterus sp. (8 views); Cycloloba sp. (7 views); Brachinus elongatulus (7 views); Calleida sp. 2 (7 views); Clivina fossor (19 views); Chlaenius glaucus (5 views); Chlaenius sericeus (3 views); Bembidion iridescens (3 views); Cychrus tuberculatus (5 views); Dyschirius thoracicus (2 views); Ega sallei (1 view); Elaphrus purpurans (3 views); Dyschirius pacificus (1 view); Drypta sp. (3 views); Cymindis punctigera (1 view); Discoderus sp. (1 view); Dyschirius tridentatus (2 views); Diplous filicornis (1 view); Disphaericus sp. (2 views); Dyschirius dejeanii (2 views); Cyrtomoscelis cf. dwesana (2 views); Euryderus grossus (2 views); Diplochaetus planatus (1 view); Diplocheila nupera (1 view);
    Bibliography528
    Documents list7




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project118
    Project downloads113
    Media downloads5M585640 (1 download); M585643 (1 download); M585588 (1 download); M585659 (1 download); M585631 (1 download);