Project 321: M. Spaulding, M. A. O'Leary, J. Gatesy. 2009. Relationships of Cetacea (Artiodactyla) Among Mammals: Increased Taxon Sampling Alters Interpretations of Key Fossils and Character Evolution. PLOS ONE. 4 (9):1-14.
Specimen: Hippopotamus amphibius (AMNH/Mammalogy:24284)

Abstract

Abstract
Background: Integration of diverse data (molecules, fossils) provides the most robust test of the phylogeny of cetaceans. Positioning key fossils is critical for reconstructing the character change from life on land to life in the water.

Methodology/Principal Findings: We reexamine relationships of critical extinct taxa that impact our understanding of the origin of Cetacea. We do this in the context of the largest total evidence analysis of morphological and molecular information for Artiodactyla (661 phenotypic characters and 46,587 molecular characters, coded for 33 extant and 48 extinct taxa). We score morphological data for Carnivoramorpha, (Creodonta, Lipotyphla, and the (raoellid artiodactylan (Indohyus and concentrate on determining which fossils are positioned along stem lineages to major artiodactylan crown clades. Shortest trees place Cetacea within Artiodactyla and close to (Indohyus, with (Mesonychia outside of Artiodactyla. The relationships of (Mesonychia and (Indohyus are highly unstable, however - in trees only two steps longer than minimum length, (Mesonychia falls inside Artiodactyla and displaces (Indohyus from a position close to Cetacea. Trees based only on data that fossilize continue to show the classic arrangement of relationships within Artiodactyla with Cetacea grouping outside the clade, a signal incongruent with the molecular data that dominate the total evidence result.

Conclusions/Significance: Integration of new fossil material of (Indohyus impacts placement of another extinct clade (Mesonychia, pushing it much farther down the tree. The phylogenetic position of (Indohyus suggests that the cetacean stem lineage included herbivorous and carnivorous aquatic species. We also conclude that extinct members of Cetancodonta (whales + hippopotamids) shared a derived ability to hear underwater sounds, even though several
cetancodontans lack a pachyostotic auditory bulla. We revise the taxonomy of living and extinct artiodactylans and propose explicit node and stem-based definitions for the ingroup.



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Project DOI: 10.7934/P321, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P321
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 3 Documents
  • 141 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 661 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 878.45k

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 32817
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 661
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 1443
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:661/0
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MorphoBank Project 321

    This research
    supported by

    Authors' Institutions

    • University of California Riverside

    • American Museum of Natural History

    • Stony Brook University



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    Maureen O'Leary
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 06/10/11
    141116610032817
    (32817, 0, 0)
    000
    MorphoBank Curator
    Full membership
    Last logged in 08/07/14
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    Michelle Spaulding
    Full membership
    Last logged in 08/26/11
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M777' (81 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
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    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
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    member
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    [1] Orycteropus afer
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    16949349200003
    [2] Bos taurus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    5960460200003
    [3] Ovis aries
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    7259158900003
    [4] Odocoileus virginianus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    8357857800003
    [5] Cervus elaphus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    9057157100003
    [6] Giraffa camelopardalis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    6460059700003
    [7] Antilocapra americana
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    10855355300003
    [8] Moschus moschiferus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    11654854500003
    [9] Tragulus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    9556856600003
    [10] Tursiops truncatus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    28937237200003
    [11] Monodon monoceros
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    32134134000003
    [12] Inia geoffrensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    32234033900003
    [13] Pontoporia blainvillei
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    35131131000003
    [14] Kogia breviceps
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    32633533500003
    [15] Ziphius cavirostris
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    30535835600003
    [16] Balaenoptera acutorostrata
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    32733533400003
    [17] Hippopotamus amphibius
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    8258257900003
    [18] Choeropsis liberiensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    10056356100003
    [19] Sus scrofa
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    8557957600003
    [20] Babyrousa babyrussa
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    13053253100003
    [21] Potamochoerus porcus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    13452952700003
    [22] † Hylochoerus meinertzhageni
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    14352251800003
    [23] Tayassu tajacu
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    11954354200003
    [24] Camelus dromedarius
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    8957357200003
    [25] Lama glama
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    15450750700003
    [26] Dicerorhinus sumatrensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    22443743700003
    [27] Tapirus terrestris
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    12353953800003
    [28] Equus caballus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    6659559500003
    [29] Ailurus fulgens
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    10655855500003
    [30] Canis latrans
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    8557657600003
    [31] Nandinia binotata
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    11854654300003
    [32] Felis silvestris
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    15950250200003
    [33] † Erinaceus europaeus
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    9656556500003
    [34] † Hyopsodus
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    21944344200003
    [35] † Hyracotherium
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    28637637500003
    [36] † Artiocetus clavis
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    37228928900003
    [37] † Rodhocetus balochistanensis
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    574878700003
    [38] † Dorudon atrox
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    24042142100003
    [39] † Basilosaurus
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    29436736700003
    [40] † Pachyaena ossifraga
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    41324824800003
    [41] † Sinonyx jiashanensis
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    24042242100003
    [42] † Mesonyx obtusidens
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    26239939900003
    [43] † Dissacus praenuntius
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    37628528500003
    [44] † Dissacus zanabazari
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    28138338000003
    [45] † Harpagolestes orientalis
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    44521621600003
    [46] † Harpagolestes uintensis
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    38727427400003
    [47] † Hapalodectes hetangensis
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    37228928900003
    [48] † Helohyus plicodon
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    45620820500003
    [49] † Pakicetidae
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    32433933700003
    [50] † Ambulocetus natans
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    53512612600003
    [51] † Gobiohyus orientalis
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    38727427400003
    [52] † Leptomeryx
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    15251150900003
    [53] † Poebrotherium
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    13552652600003
    [54] † Agriochoerus
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    14851751300003
    [55] † Merycoidodon sp.
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    13652752500003
    [56] † Diacodexis pakistanensis
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    24641541500003
    [57] † Diacodexis northamerican
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    40525825600003
    [58] † Perchoerus
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    24042442100003
    [59] † Archaeotherium
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    14352051800003
    [60] † Elomeryx
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    22144344000003
    [61] † Microbunodon minimum
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    35530830600003
    [62] † Merycopotamus dissimilis
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    37528728600003
    [63] † Xenohyus venitor
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    54511611600003
    [64] † Anthracokeryx ulnifer
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    37428728700003
    [65] † Libycosaurus petrocchii
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    54711411400003
    [66] † Bothriogenys
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    27938438200003
    [67] † Siamotherium krabiense
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    56110010000003
    [68] † Cainotherium
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    14851351300003
    [69] † Phenacodus
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    24741741400003
    [70] † Protungulatum
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    51514714600003
    [71] † Brachyhyops wyomingensis
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    48517617600003
    [72] † Achaenodon uintensis
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    35930230200003
    [73] † Andrewsarchus mongoliensis
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    51314814800003
    [74] † Eoconodon heilprinianus
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    40126026000003
    [75] † Protoceras celer
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    25740540400003
    [76] † Indohyus indirae
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    45920320200003
    [77] † Vulpavus profectus
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    20046346100003
    [78] † Thinocyon
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    22343843800003
    [79] † Hyaenodon
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    16250049900003
    [80] † Patriofelis
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    21744444400003
    [81] † Proviverra
    Last Modified in 05/02/19
    18947247200003


    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views27216
    Project overview3037
    Matrix views1685Matrix landing page (1426 views); Morphology matrix (259 views);
    Media views3309Media search (2858 views); M38695 (451 views);
    Specimen list1810
    Documents list935
    Taxon list15566
    Bibliography874




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project614
    Matrix downloads85Morphology matrix (85 downloads);
    Document downloads2820 shortest trees of 57269 steps (10 downloads); All data - TNT formatted (13 downloads); All data with Genbank numbers (5 downloads);
    Project downloads500
    Media downloads1M38695 (1 download);