Project 321: M. Spaulding, M. A. O'Leary, J. Gatesy. 2009. Relationships of Cetacea (Artiodactyla) Among Mammals: Increased Taxon Sampling Alters Interpretations of Key Fossils and Character Evolution. PLOS ONE. 4 (9):1-14.
Specimen: Hippopotamus amphibius (AMNH/Mammalogy:24284)

Abstract

Abstract
Background: Integration of diverse data (molecules, fossils) provides the most robust test of the phylogeny of cetaceans. Positioning key fossils is critical for reconstructing the character change from life on land to life in the water.

Methodology/Principal Findings: We reexamine relationships of critical extinct taxa that impact our understanding of the origin of Cetacea. We do this in the context of the largest total evidence analysis of morphological and molecular information for Artiodactyla (661 phenotypic characters and 46,587 molecular characters, coded for 33 extant and 48 extinct taxa). We score morphological data for Carnivoramorpha, (Creodonta, Lipotyphla, and the (raoellid artiodactylan (Indohyus and concentrate on determining which fossils are positioned along stem lineages to major artiodactylan crown clades. Shortest trees place Cetacea within Artiodactyla and close to (Indohyus, with (Mesonychia outside of Artiodactyla. The relationships of (Mesonychia and (Indohyus are highly unstable, however - in trees only two steps longer than minimum length, (Mesonychia falls inside Artiodactyla and displaces (Indohyus from a position close to Cetacea. Trees based only on data that fossilize continue to show the classic arrangement of relationships within Artiodactyla with Cetacea grouping outside the clade, a signal incongruent with the molecular data that dominate the total evidence result.

Conclusions/Significance: Integration of new fossil material of (Indohyus impacts placement of another extinct clade (Mesonychia, pushing it much farther down the tree. The phylogenetic position of (Indohyus suggests that the cetacean stem lineage included herbivorous and carnivorous aquatic species. We also conclude that extinct members of Cetancodonta (whales + hippopotamids) shared a derived ability to hear underwater sounds, even though several
cetancodontans lack a pachyostotic auditory bulla. We revise the taxonomy of living and extinct artiodactylans and propose explicit node and stem-based definitions for the ingroup.



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Project DOI: 10.7934/P321, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P321
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 3 Documents
  • 141 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 661 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 1 MB

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 32817
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 661
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 1443
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:661/0
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MorphoBank Project 321

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    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
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    Maureen O'Leary
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 06/10/11
    141116610032817
    (32817, 0, 0)
    000
    MorphoBank Curator
    Full membership
    Last logged in 08/07/14
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    Michelle Spaulding
    Full membership
    Last logged in 08/26/11
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    (0, 0, 0)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M777' (81 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
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    [1] Orycteropus afer
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    16949349200003
    [2] Bos taurus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    5960460200003
    [3] Ovis aries
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    7259158900003
    [4] Odocoileus virginianus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    8357857800003
    [5] Cervus elaphus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    9057157100003
    [6] Giraffa camelopardalis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    6460059700003
    [7] Antilocapra americana
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    10855355300003
    [8] Moschus moschiferus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    11654854500003
    [9] Tragulus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    9556856600003
    [10] Tursiops truncatus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    28937237200003
    [11] Monodon monoceros
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    32134134000003
    [12] Inia geoffrensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    32234033900003
    [13] Pontoporia blainvillei
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    35131131000003
    [14] Kogia breviceps
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    32633533500003
    [15] Ziphius cavirostris
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    30535835600003
    [16] Balaenoptera acutorostrata
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    32733533400003
    [17] Hippopotamus amphibius
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    8258257900003
    [18] Choeropsis liberiensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    10056356100003
    [19] Sus scrofa
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    8557957600003
    [20] Babyrousa babyrussa
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    13053253100003
    [21] Potamochoerus porcus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    13452952700003
    [22] Hylochoerus meinertzhageni
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    14352251800003
    [23] Tayassu tajacu
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    11954354200003
    [24] Camelus dromedarius
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    8957357200003
    [25] Lama glama
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    15450750700003
    [26] Dicerorhinus sumatrensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    22443743700003
    [27] Tapirus terrestris
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    12353953800003
    [28] Equus caballus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    6659559500003
    [29] Ailurus fulgens
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    10655855500003
    [30] Canis latrans
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    8557657600003
    [31] Nandinia binotata
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    11854654300003
    [32] Felis silvestris
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    15950250200003
    [33] Erinaceus europaeus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    9656556500003
    [34] Hyopsodus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    21944344200003
    [35] Hyracotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    28637637500003
    [36] Artiocetus clavis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    37228928900003
    [37] Rodhocetus balochistanensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    574878700003
    [38] Dorudon atrox
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    24042142100003
    [39] Basilosaurus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    29436736700003
    [40] Pachyaena ossifraga
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    41324824800003
    [41] Sinonyx jiashanensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    24042242100003
    [42] Mesonyx obtusidens
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    26239939900003
    [43] Dissacus praenuntius
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    37628528500003
    [44] Dissacus zanabazari
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    28138338000003
    [45] Harpagolestes orientalis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    44521621600003
    [46] Harpagolestes uintensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    38727427400003
    [47] Hapalodectes hetangensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    37228928900003
    [48] Helohyus plicodon
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    45620820500003
    [49] Pakicetidae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    32433933700003
    [50] Ambulocetus natans
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    53512612600003
    [51] Gobiohyus orientalis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    38727427400003
    [52] Leptomeryx
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    15251150900003
    [53] Poebrotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    13552652600003
    [54] Agriochoerus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    14851751300003
    [55] Merycoidodon sp.
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    13652752500003
    [56] Diacodexis pakistanensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    24641541500003
    [57] Diacodexis northamerican
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    40525825600003
    [58] Perchoerus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    24042442100003
    [59] Archaeotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    14352051800003
    [60] Elomeryx
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    22144344000003
    [61] Microbunodon minimum
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    35530830600003
    [62] Merycopotamus dissimilis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    37528728600003
    [63] Xenohyus venitor
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    54511611600003
    [64] Anthracokeryx ulnifer
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    37428728700003
    [65] Libycosaurus petrocchii
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    54711411400003
    [66] Bothriogenys
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    27938438200003
    [67] Siamotherium krabiense
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    56110010000003
    [68] Cainotherium
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    14851351300003
    [69] Phenacodus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    24741741400003
    [70] Protungulatum
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    51514714600003
    [71] Brachyhyops wyomingensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    48517617600003
    [72] Achaenodon uintensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    35930230200003
    [73] Andrewsarchus mongoliensis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    51314814800003
    [74] Eoconodon heilprinianus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    40126026000003
    [75] Protoceras celer
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    25740540400003
    [76] Indohyus indirae
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    45920320200003
    [77] Vulpavus profectus
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    20046346100003
    [78] Thinocyon
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    22343843800003
    [79] Hyaenodon
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    16250049900003
    [80] Patriofelis
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    21744444400003
    [81] Proviverra
    Last Modified in 12/05/13
    18947247200003


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    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views24435
    Project overview2816
    Matrix views1576Matrix landing page (1342 views); Morphology matrix (234 views);
    Media views3226Media search (2783 views); M38695 (443 views);
    Specimen list1735
    Documents list907
    Taxon list13393
    Bibliography782




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project595
    Project downloads484
    Matrix downloads82Morphology matrix (82 downloads);
    Document downloads2820 shortest trees of 57269 steps (10 downloads); All data - TNT formatted (13 downloads); All data with Genbank numbers (5 downloads);
    Media downloads1M38695 (1 download);