Project 3212: Daniel L. Nickrent, Frank Anderson, Job Kuijt. 2019. Inflorescence evolution in Santalales: Integrating morphological characters and molecular phylogenetics. American Journal of Botany. 106 (3):402-414.
Specimen: Phoradendron leucarpum (SIU/5595)
View: shoot

Abstract

PREMISE OF THE STUDY
The sandalwood order (Santalales) includes members that present a diverse array of inflorescence types, some of which are unique among angiosperms. This diversity presents a interpretational challenges but also opportunities to test fundamental concepts in plant morphology. Here we use modern phylogenetic approaches to address the evolution of inflorescences in the sandalwood order.
METHODS
Phylogenetic analyses of two nuclear and three chloroplast genes was conducted on representatives of 146 of the 163 genera in the order. A matrix was constructed that scored nine characters dealing with inflorescences. One character “trios” that encompasses any grouping of three flowers (i.e. both dichasia and triads) was optimized on samples of the posterior distribution of trees from the Bayesian analysis using BayesTraits. Three nodes were examined: the most recent common ancestors of A) all ingroup members, B) Loranthaceae, and C) Opiliaceae, Santalaceae s. lat. and Viscaceae
KEY RESULTS
The phylogenetic analysis resulted in many fully resolved nodes across Santalales with strong support for 18 clades previously named as families. The trios character was not supported for nodes A and C whereas it was supported for node B where this partial inflorescence type is best described as a triad.
CONCLUSIONS
Essentially every major inflorescence type can be found in Santalales, however, the dichasium, a type of partial inflorescence, is rarely seen and is not plesiomorphic for the order. In the family Erythropalaceae, inflorescences are mostly in small, axillary fascicles or cymes. Successive families show both cymose and racemose types as well as compound systems (e.g. thyrses). Inflorescences in Amphorogynaceae and Viscaceae are not dichasial and in general are difficult to compare to “standard” inflorescences.


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Article DOI: doi:10.1002/ajb2.1250

Project DOI: 10.7934/P3212, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P3212
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 1 Document
  • 146 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 10 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 1 MB

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 1620
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 10
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 36
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:10/0
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MorphoBank Project 3212


    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
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    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
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    Daniel Nickrent
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 04/15/19
    1460010001620
    (1620, 0, 0)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M25506' (146 Taxa)

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    [1] Brachynema ramiflorum
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [2] Erythropalum scandens
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [3] Heisteria densifrons
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
    0111000001
    [4] Maburea trinervis
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
    0101000001
    [5] Diogoa zenkeri
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
    0111000001
    [6] Engomegoma gordonii
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
    0101000001
    [7] Scorodocarpus borneensis
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
    0111000001
    [8] Strombosia pustulata
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
    0111000001
    [9] Strombosiopsis tetrandra
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
    0121000001
    [10] Tetrastylidium peruvianum
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [11] Coula edulis
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [12] Minquartia guianensis
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [13] Ochanostachys amentacea
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [14] Curupira tefeensis
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [15] Malania oleifera
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
    28800001
    [16] Ximenia americana
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    [17] Dulacia candida
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    [18] Olax scandens
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    [19] Ptychopetalum petiolatum
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    [20] Anacolosa papuana
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    [21] Aptandra tubicina
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    [22] Cathedra acuminata
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    [23] Chaunochiton kappleri
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    [24] Harmandia mekongensis
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    [25] Hondurodendron urceolatum
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    [26] Ongokea gore
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    [27] Phanerodiscus capuronii
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    [28] Octoknema species
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    [29] Misodendrum punctulatum
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    [30] Arjona tuberosa
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    [31] Quinchamalium chilense
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    [32] Schoepfia schreberi
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    [33] Nuytsia floribunda
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    [34] Atkinsonia ligustrina
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    [83] Actinanthella menyharthii
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    [84] Agelanthus sansibarensis
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    [85] Bakerella species
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [86] Berhautia senegalensis
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [87] Englerina ramulosa
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
    0101000001
    [88] Oedina pendans
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [89] Oncella ambigua
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [90] Oncocalyx sulfureus
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [91] Plicosepalus sagittiflorus
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [92] Socratina bemarivensis
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [93] Tapinanthus constrictiflorus
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [94] Vanwykia remota
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [95] Agonandra macrocarpa
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [96] Anthobolus leptomerioides
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [97] Cansjera leptostachya
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    [98] Champereia manillana
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    [99] Lepionurus sylvestris
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [100] Melientha suavis
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    [101] Opilia amentacea
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [102] Pentarhopalopilia marquesii
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [103] Rhopalopilia pallens
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [104] Urobotrya siamensis
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [105] Comandra umbellata
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [106] Geocaulon lividum
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [107] Buckleya distichophylla
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [108] Osyridicarpos schimperianus
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    [109] Thesium ramosum
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [110] Acanthosyris asipapote
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    [111] Cervantesia tomentosa
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [112] Jodina rhombifolia
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [113] Okoubaka aubrevillei
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [114] Pilgerina madagascariensis
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [115] Pyrularia pubera
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [116] Scleropyrum pentandrum
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [117] Staufferia capuronii
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [118] Mida salicifolia
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [119] Nanodea muscosa
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [120] Antidaphne viscoidea
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [121] Colpoon compressum
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [122] Eubrachion ambiguum
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [123] Exocarpos sparteus
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [124] Lepidoceras chilense
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [125] Myoschilos oblongum
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [126] Nestronia umbellula
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [127] Omphacomeria acerba
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    [128] Osyris alba
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [129] Rhoiacarpos capensis
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [130] Santalum paniculatum
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [131] Amphorogyne celastroides
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [132] Choretrum pauciflorum
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    [133] Daenikera corallina
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [134] Dendromyza ledermannii
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    [135] Dendrotrophe varians
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    [136] Dufrenoya sphaerocarpa
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [137] Leptomeria aphylla
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [138] Phacellaria rigidula
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [139] Spirogardnera rubescens
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [140] Arceuthobium oxycedri
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [141] Dendrophthora squamigera
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [142] Ginalloa arnottiana
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [143] Korthalsella latissima
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
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    [144] Notothixos subaureus
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
    0111000001
    [145] Phoradendron leucarpum
    Last Modified in 04/12/19
    0121000001
    [146] Viscum album
    Last Modified in 04/16/19
    0121000001


    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views232
    Project overview51
    Matrix views39Matrix landing page (24 views); Inflorescence Matrix Santalales (15 views);
    Media views36Media search (31 views); M668703 (5 views);
    Taxon list62
    Specimen list14
    Documents list12
    Views for media list10
    Bibliography8




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project5
    Project downloads3
    Matrix downloads1Inflorescence Matrix Santalales (1 download);
    Document downloads15-Genes Santalales (1 download);