Project 3238: R. F. Hayes, S. Y. Smith, M. Montellano-Ballesteros, G. Álvarez-Reyes, R. Hernandez-Rivera, D. E. Fastovsky. 2018. Cornalean affinities, phylogenetic significance, and biogeographic implications ofOperculifructusinfructescences from the Late Cretaceous (Campanian) of Mexico. American Journal of Botany. 105 (11):1911-1928.
Specimen: Cornus canadensis (unvouchered)
View: abaxial view of leaves and flower

Abstract

Premise of the Study

Cretaceous Cornales provide a crucial record of the early history of asterids. Most lineages of the order are well represented in the fossil record, but South African families of Curtisiaceae and Grubbiaceae remain poorly understood. Seventy‐three specimens of a fossil infructescence belonging to the genus Operculifructus Estrada‐Ruiz & Cevallos‐Ferriz emend. Hayes & Smith from the Late Cretaceous (Campanian) El Gallo Formation, Baja California, Mexico bear previously undescribed characters that suggest a relationship to Grubbiaceae.
Methods

Microstructures of the fossils were examined through light microscopy and x‐ray microcomputed tomography (microCT) scanning. Modern Grubbia tomentosa (Thunb.) Harms fruits were scanned for comparison to the fossil material. Phylogenetic analyses using the 77 fruit characters of Atkinson (2018) were performed to test relationships of the fossil to major lineages of the order. Several analyses applied topological constraints to the extant taxa, based on various genetically supported hypotheses of relationship within Cornales.

Key Results

Novel structures of Operculifructus newly observed here include (1) anatropous ovules, (2) drupaceous fruits, (3) an epigynous disc, (4) and a stylar canal in the center of the disc aligned with the micropylar protrusion of the seed. Phylogenetic analysis consistently resolves Operculifructus as sister to Grubbiaceae.
Conclusions

Operculifructus provides direct evidence for the occurrence of Grubbiaceae in the Late Cretaceous, much older than previous Eocene evidence. The phylogeny of Atkinson (2018) indicates that the new phylogenetic position recovered for Operculifructus also establishes the presence of the most basal drupaceous cornalean fruits in North America by the Campanian.



Read the article »

Article DOI: 10.1002/ajb2.1179

Project DOI: 10.7934/P3238, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P3238
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 7 Documents
  • 59 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 77 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 493.48k

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 4109
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 77
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 171
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:77/0
Currently Viewing:
MorphoBank Project 3238

    Authors' Institutions

    • Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM)

    • University of Michigan

    • University of Rhode Island



    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    Selena Smith
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 08/10/18
    590077004109
    (2992, 0, 1117)
    000
    Reilly Hayes
    Full membership
    Last logged in Never
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    Reilly Hayes
    Full membership
    Last logged in 08/10/18
    0000000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M25579' (59 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] Cornus oblonga
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    06767010003
    [2] Cornus controversa
    Last Modified in 02/07/20
    06666011003
    [3] Cornus sanguenea
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    0686809003
    [4] Cornus mas
    Last Modified in 02/07/20
    06565012003
    [5] Cornus officinalis
    Last Modified in 02/07/20
    06363014003
    [6] Cornus volkensii
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    46262011003
    [7] Cornus canadensis
    Last Modified in 02/07/20
    06161016003
    [8] Cornus eydeana
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    14555508003
    [9] Cornus piggae
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    125353012003
    [10] Cornus multilocularis
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    125353012003
    [11] Cornus florida
    Last Modified in 02/07/20
    06363014003
    [12] Cornus kousa
    Last Modified in 02/07/20
    06262015003
    [13] Alangium chinense
    Last Modified in 02/07/20
    26565010003
    [14] Alangium eydei
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    175050010003
    [15] Alangium vermontanum
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    164949012003
    [16] Alangium javanicum
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    36060014003
    [17] Alangium villosum
    Last Modified in 02/07/20
    65555016003
    [18] Diplopanax stachyanthus
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    115353013003
    [19] Diplopanax eydei
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    45858015003
    [20] Mastixia philippenensis
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    26363012003
    [21] Retinomastixia schultei
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    184949010003
    [22] Mastixioidiocarpum oregonense
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    16535308003
    [23] Langtonia bisulcata
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    7616109003
    [24] Beckettia samuelis
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    392828010003
    [25] Davidia involucrata
    Last Modified in 02/07/20
    06666011003
    [26] Davidia antiqua
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    95353015003
    [27] Drumheller fruit 1
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    154747015003
    [28] Camptotheca acuminata
    Last Modified in 02/07/20
    25959016003
    [29] Nyssa sylvatica
    Last Modified in 02/07/20
    06666011003
    [30] Nyssa ogeche
    Last Modified in 02/07/20
    26262013003
    [31] Nyssa aquatica
    Last Modified in 02/07/20
    16666010003
    [32] Nyssa talamancana
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    8616108003
    [33] Nyssa javanica
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    16666010003
    [34] Nyssa grayensis
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    19494909003
    [35] Nyssa spatulata
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    22464609003
    [36] Curtisia dentata
    Last Modified in 02/07/20
    06363014003
    [37] Curtisia quadrilocularis
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    154848014003
    [38] † Opeculifructus spp.
    Last Modified in 02/07/20
    164949012003
    [39] Grubbia rosmarinifolia
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    65454017003
    [40] Hydrostachys spp.
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    11717059003
    [41] Hydrangea heteromalla
    Last Modified in 02/07/20
    32525049003
    [42] Deutzia corymbosa
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    22727048003
    [43] Jamesia americana
    Last Modified in 02/07/20
    32626048003
    [44] Philadelphus purpurascens
    Last Modified in 02/07/20
    32626048003
    [45] Mentzelia dispersa
    Last Modified in 02/07/20
    12525051003
    [46] Loasa sclareifolia
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    12525051003
    [47] Hironoia fusiformis
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    76060010003
    [48] Amersinia obtrullata
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    46262011003
    [49] Suciacarpa starrii
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    105454013003
    [50] Suciacarpa xiangae
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    135252012003
    [51] Eydeia hokkaidoensis
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    06565012003
    [52] Eydeia vancouverensis
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    145151012003
    [53] Edencarpa grandis
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    174545015003
    [54] Obamacarpa edenensis
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    26060015003
    [55] Drumheller fruit 2
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    155050012003
    [56] Sheltercarpa vancouverensis
    Last Modified in 08/05/18
    333232012003
    [57] Hydrocera triflora
    Last Modified in 02/07/20
    21717058003
    [58] Marcgravia nepenthoides
    Last Modified in 02/07/20
    21918057003
    [59] Fouquieria columnaris
    Last Modified in 02/07/20
    31717057003


    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views846
    Project overview123
    Matrix views97Operculifructus matrix (14 views); Matrix landing page (83 views);
    Documents list80
    Bibliography21
    Media views148Media search (133 views); M685198 (15 views);
    Views for media list34
    Specimen list61
    Taxon list282




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project18
    Project downloads13
    Matrix downloads5Operculifructus matrix (5 downloads);