Project 3280: J. S. Albert,W. G. R. Crampton,D. H. Thorsen,N. R. Lovejoy. 2005. Phylogenetic systematics and historical biogeography of the Neotropical electric fish Gymnotus (Teleostei: Gymnotidae). Systematics and Biodiversity. 2 (4):375-417.
Specimen: Gymnotus inaequilabiatus (unvouchered)
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Abstract

Phylogenetic interrelationships of the Neotropical electric fish genus Gymnotus are documented from comparative study of phenotypic data. A data matrix was compiled of 113 phenotypic characters for 40 taxa, including 31 recognized Gymnotus species, six allopatric populations of G. carapo, two allopatric populations of G. coropinae, and three gymnotiform outgroups. MP analysis yielded 15 trees of equal length, the strict consensus of which is presented as a working hypothesis of Gymnotus interrelationships. Diagnoses are presented for 26 clades, including three species groups; the G. cylindricus group with two species restricted to Middle America, the G. pantherinus group with 12 species in South America, and the G. carapo group with 16 species in South America. The basal division of Gymnotus is between clades endemic to Middle and South America. Both the G. pantherinus and G. carapo groups include trans-Andean sister-axon pairs, suggesting a minimum date for the origins of these groups in the late Middle Miocene (c. 12 Ma.). The geographically widespread species G. carapo is paraphyletic. Analysis of character state evolution shows characters of external morphology are more phylogenetically plastic and provide more phylogenetic information in recent branches than do characters of internal morphology, which themselves provide the more information in deeper branches. Nine regional species assemblages of Gymnotus are recognized, none of which is monophyletic. There are at least two independent origins of Gymnotus species in sediment rich, high conductivity, perennially hypoxic whitewater floodplains (varzea


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Article DOI: 10.1017/S1477200004001574

Project DOI: 10.7934/P3280, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P3280
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  • Creation Date:
    10 October 2018
  • Publication Date:
    30 October 2018
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