Project 3287: C. Souto, R. Mooi, L. Martins, C. Menegola, C. R. Marshall. 2019. Homoplasy and extinction: the phylogeny of cassidulid echinoids (Echinodermata). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. zlz060:online.
Specimen: Cassidulus caribaearum (CAS/IZ:CAS-IZ 112638)
View: Oral view of test

Abstract

Inclusion of fossils can be crucial to address evolutionary questions, because their unique morphology, often drastically modified in recent species, can improve phylogenetic resolution. We performed a cladistic analysis of 45 cassidulids with 98 characters, which resulted in 24 most parsimonious trees. The strict consensus recovers three major cassiduloid clades, and the monophyly of the family Cassidulidae is not supported. Ancillary analyses to determine the sensitivity of the phylogeny to missing data do not result in significantly different topologies. The taxonomic implications of these results, including the description of a new cassiduloid family and the evolution of some morphological features, are discussed. Cassiduloids (as defined here) most probably originated in the Early Cretaceous, and their evolutionary history has been dominated by high levels of homoplasy and a dearth of unique, novel traits. Despite their high diversity during the Palaeogene, there are only seven extant cassiduloid species, and three of these are relicts of lineages dating back to the Eocene. Future studies of the biology of these poorly known species, some of which brood their young, will yield further insights into the evolutionary history of this group.


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Article DOI: 10.1093/zoolinnean/zlz060

Project DOI: 10.7934/P3287, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P3287
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 2 Matrices
  • 7 Documents
  • 66 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 100 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 2 MB

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 11916
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 196
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 247
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:188/8
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MorphoBank Project 3287


    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    Camilla Souto
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 09/02/19
    66111960011916
    (11872, 0, 44)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M25847' (66 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] † Nucleolites scutatus
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    8908802001
    [2] Apatopygus recens
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    0979701001
    [3] Echinolampas depressa
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    0979701001
    [4] † Faujasia apicalis
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    6919101001
    [5] † Faujasia rancheriana
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    8898901001
    [6] † Hardouinia bassleri
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    16848200001
    [7] † Hardouinia mortonis
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    6929200001
    [8] † Australanthus longianus
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    7929100001
    [9] † Kassandrina florescens
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    8909000001
    [10] Kassandrina malayana
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    1979700001
    [11] Neolampas rostellata
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    08685013001
    [12] Oligopodia epigonus
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    0979701001
    [13] † Petalobrissus cubensis
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    6929200001
    [14] † Pliolampas elegantula
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    7919100001
    [15] † Procassidulus lapiscancri
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    7949100001
    [16] † Petalobrissus setifensis
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    9898801001
    [17] † Rhynchopygus arumaensis
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    8919000001
    [18] † Rhynchopygus macari
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    15868300001
    [19] † Rhynchopygus marmini
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    11888700001
    [20] † Stigmatopygus pulchellus
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    9918900001
    [21] Studeria recens
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    6919101001
    [22] Cassidulus briareus
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    4949400001
    [23] † Cassidulus californicus
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    14868400001
    [24] Cassidulus caribaearum
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    0999800001
    [25] † Cassidulus ellipticus
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    17848100001
    [26] † Cassidulus falconensis
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    7919100001
    [27] Cassidulus infidus
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    0989800001
    [28] † Cassidulus kieri
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    6929200001
    [29] Cassidulus mitis
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    0989800001
    [30] † Cassidulus trojanus
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    8909000001
    [31] † Eurhodia australiae
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    8909000001
    [32] † Eurhodia baumi
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    9898900001
    [33] † Eurhodia calderi
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    7939100001
    [34] † Eurhodia cravenensis
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    10908800001
    [35] † Eurhodia holmesi
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    7929100001
    [36] † Eurhodia matleyi
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    9898900001
    [37] † Eurhodia morrisi
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    7929100001
    [38] † Eurhodia navillei
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    10918800001
    [39] † Eurhodia patelliformis
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    9938900001
    [40] Eurhodia relicta
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    2979600001
    [41] † Eurhodia rugosa
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    6929200001
    [42] † Eurhodia thebensis
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    15888300001
    [43] † Glossaster sorigneti
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    17828100001
    [44] † Glossaster vasseuri
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    7929100001
    [45] † Glossaster welschi
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    25747300001
    [46] † Paralampas pileus
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    7939100001
    [47] † Paralampas rancureli
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    13858500001
    [48] † Rhyncholampas alabamensis
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    8929000001
    [49] † Rhyncholampas anceps
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    12888600001
    [50] † Rhyncholampas ayresi
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    9908900001
    [51] † Rhyncholampas carolinensis
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    9908900001
    [52] † Rhyncholampas chipolana
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    10898800001
    [53] † Rhyncholampas conradi
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    8909000001
    [54] † Rhyncholampas daradensis
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    8909000001
    [55] † Rhyncholampas ericsoni
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    11898700001
    [56] † Rhyncholampas evergladensis
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    7929100001
    [57] † Rhyncholampas globosa
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    10888800001
    [58] † Rhyncholampas gouldii
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    8949000001
    [59] † Rhyncholampas grignonensis
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    9898900001
    [60] † Rhyncholampas mexicana
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    12868600001
    [61] Rhyncholampas pacifica
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    01009800001
    [62] † Rhyncholampas riveroi
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    22797600001
    [63] † Rhyncholampas rodriguezi (?) (a)
    Last Modified in 01/30/19
    13858500001
    [64] † Rhyncholampas rodriguezi (?) (r)
    Last Modified in 01/30/19
    9918900001
    [65] † Rhyncholampas sabistonensis
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    9948900001
    [66] † Rhyncholampas tuderi
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    11888700001


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M25848' (66 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
    no cell
    support
    NPA
    cells
    "-" cellscell images labels on
    cell images
    member
    access
    [1] † Nucleolites scutatus
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    8908802001
    [2] Apatopygus recens
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    0979701001
    [3] Echinolampas depressa
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    0979701001
    [4] † Faujasia apicalis
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    6919101001
    [5] † Faujasia rancheriana
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    8898901001
    [6] † Hardouinia bassleri
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    17828100001
    [7] † Hardouinia mortonis
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    6929200001
    [8] † Australanthus longianus
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    7929100001
    [9] † Kassandrina florescens
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    8909000001
    [10] Kassandrina malayana
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    1979700001
    [11] Neolampas rostellata
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    08685013001
    [12] Oligopodia epigonus
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    0979701001
    [13] † Petalobrissus cubensis
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    6929200001
    [14] † Pliolampas elegantula
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    7919100001
    [15] † Procassidulus lapiscancri
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    7949100001
    [16] † Petalobrissus setifensis
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    10878701001
    [17] † Rhynchopygus arumaensis
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    8919000001
    [18] † Rhynchopygus macari
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    17818100001
    [19] † Rhynchopygus marmini
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    12868600001
    [20] † Stigmatopygus pulchellus
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    10898800001
    [21] Studeria recens
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    6919101001
    [22] Cassidulus briareus
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    4949400001
    [23] † Cassidulus californicus
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    16828200001
    [24] Cassidulus caribaearum
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    0999800001
    [25] † Cassidulus ellipticus
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    20787800001
    [26] † Cassidulus falconensis
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    7919100001
    [27] Cassidulus infidus
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    0989800001
    [28] † Cassidulus kieri
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    6929200001
    [29] Cassidulus mitis
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    0989800001
    [30] † Cassidulus trojanus
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    8909000001
    [31] † Eurhodia australiae
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    8909000001
    [32] † Eurhodia baumi
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    9898900001
    [33] † Eurhodia calderi
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    7939100001
    [34] † Eurhodia cravenensis
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    11888700001
    [35] † Eurhodia holmesi
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    7929100001
    [36] † Eurhodia matleyi
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    9898900001
    [37] † Eurhodia morrisi
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    7929100001
    [38] † Eurhodia navillei
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    12878600001
    [39] † Eurhodia patelliformis
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    9938900001
    [40] Eurhodia relicta
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    2979600001
    [41] † Eurhodia rugosa
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    6929200001
    [42] † Eurhodia thebensis
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    18808000001
    [43] † Glossaster sorigneti
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    18808000001
    [44] † Glossaster vasseuri
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    8909000001
    [45] † Glossaster welschi
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    26727200001
    [46] † Paralampas pileus
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    8919000001
    [47] † Paralampas rancureli
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    13858500001
    [48] † Rhyncholampas alabamensis
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    10888800001
    [49] † Rhyncholampas anceps
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    14848400001
    [50] † Rhyncholampas ayresi
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    9908900001
    [51] † Rhyncholampas carolinensis
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    9908900001
    [52] † Rhyncholampas chipolana
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    11878700001
    [53] † Rhyncholampas conradi
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    8909000001
    [54] † Rhyncholampas daradensis
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    8909000001
    [55] † Rhyncholampas ericsoni
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    12878600001
    [56] † Rhyncholampas evergladensis
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    7929100001
    [57] † Rhyncholampas globosa
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    10888800001
    [58] † Rhyncholampas gouldii
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    8949000001
    [59] † Rhyncholampas grignonensis
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    9898900001
    [60] † Rhyncholampas mexicana
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    12868600001
    [61] Rhyncholampas pacifica
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    01009800001
    [62] † Rhyncholampas riveroi
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    24747400001
    [63] † Rhyncholampas rodriguezi (?) (a)
    Last Modified in 01/30/19
    13858500001
    [64] † Rhyncholampas rodriguezi (?) (r)
    Last Modified in 01/30/19
    10898800001
    [65] † Rhyncholampas sabistonensis
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    12868600001
    [66] † Rhyncholampas tuderi
    Last Modified in 05/05/19
    12868600001


    Project views

    type number of views Individual items viewed (where applicable)
    Total project views470
    Project overview92
    Matrix views60Family Cassidulidae: character matrix without partial uncertainties (13 views); Family Cassidulidae: character matrix (complete dataset) (13 views); Matrix landing page (34 views);
    Documents list31
    Media views70Media search (63 views); M657051 (7 views);
    Views for media list29
    Specimen list32
    Taxon list141
    Bibliography15




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project15
    Project downloads10
    Matrix downloads4Family Cassidulidae: character matrix without partial uncertainties (2 downloads); Family Cassidulidae: character matrix (complete dataset) (2 downloads);
    Document downloads1Analysis 1 (1 download);