Project 3405: G. H. Azevedo, C. E. Griswold, A. J. Santos. 2018. Systematics and evolution of ground spiders revisited (Araneae, Dionycha, Gnaphosidae). Cladistics. 34 (6):579-626.
Specimen: Cesonia bilineata (unvouchered)
View: body

Abstract

Gnaphosidae Pocock are a very diverse spider family with remarkable spinning organ morphology. Although the family has received intense taxonomic attention in recent years, its intergeneric relationships remain obscure. A phylogenetic analysis of Gnaphosidae genera was performed to untangle the evolutionary history of the family. A matrix of 324 morphological characters, scored for 71 gnaphosid genera and 29 outgroup taxa, was analysed through parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic inference. Gnaphosidae are not recovered as a monophyletic group, neither were most of the previously proposed intrafamiliar groupings. In accordance with the phylogenetic results obtained, Vectius Simon and Hemicloea Thorell are transferred to Trochanteriidae, and Xenoplectus Schiapelli & Gerschman de Pikelin to Liocranidae. Micaria Westring, Nauhea Forster and Verita Ramírez & Grismado (and some related genera) are probably not gnaphosids, although their phylogenetic placement is uncertain. Gnaphosidae s.s. are defined as spiders with enlarged piriform gland spigots, longer and wider than the major ampullate gland spigots. Within Gnaphosidae s.s., well‐supported clades allow the redefinition, on the basis of quantitative phylogenetic evidence, of Gnaphosinae Pocock, Zelotinae Platnick, Herpyllinae Platnick, Drassodinae Simon, Prodidominae Simon rank res. and the newly proposed Leptodrassinae subfam. nov. Many genera are not assigned to subfamily given their poorly supported and unstable relationships. The homology and evolution of structures such as the claw tuft clasper, the spinning organs and the modification of cheliceral promargin are discussed.


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Article DOI: 10.1111/cla.12226

Project DOI: 10.7934/P3405, http://dx.doi.org/10.7934/P3405
This project containsMatrices
  • 1 Media
  • 1 Matrix
  • 2 Documents
  • 113 Taxa
  • 1 Specimen
  • 324 Characters
Total size of project's media files: 62.6k

Download Project SDD File
Total scored cells: 29736
Total media associated with cells: 0
Total labels associated with cell media: 0
Characters
Total characters: 324
Total characters with associated media: 0
Total characters with media with labels: 0
Total character states: 674
Total character states with associated media: 0
Total character states with media with labels:0
Total unordered/ordered characters:324/0
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MorphoBank Project 3405


    Members

    member name taxa specimens media chars character
    media
    labels
    cell scorings
    (scored, NPA, "-")
    cell
    medialabels
    rules
    MorphoBank Curator
    Project Administrator
    Last logged in 02/28/19
    14110000
    (0, 0, 0)
    000
    Ana Andruchow-Colombo
    Full membership
    Last logged in 01/28/20
    99003240029736
    (25290, 0, 4446)
    000


    Taxonomic Overview for Matrix 'M26429' (100 Taxa)

    taxon unscored
    cells
    scored
    cells
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    support
    NPA
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    "-" cellscell images labels on
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    [1] Anyphaena accentuata
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    7268268049002
    [2] Amazoromus kedus
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    45245245034002
    [3] Ammoxenus coccineus
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    22265265037002
    [4] Anagraphis pallens
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    3285285036002
    [5] Aneplasa facieis
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    105173173046002
    [6] Anzacia gemmea
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    29267267028002
    [7] Aphantaulax spp
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    42250250032002
    [8] Apodrassodes guatemalensis
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    2282282040002
    [9] Apopyllus silvestrii
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    4290290030002
    [10] Arauchemus graudo
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    21261261042002
    [11] Asemesthes spp
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    93188188043002
    [12] Australoechemus celer
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    40263262022002
    [13] Berinda amabilis
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    41248248035002
    [14] Berlandina plumalis
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    9260260055002
    [15] Callilepis nocturna
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    5273272047002
    [16] Camillina cordifera
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    2262262060002
    [17] Cesonia bilineata
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    7291289028002
    [18] Chileuma paposo
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    4286286034002
    [19] Chilongius palmas
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    1285285038002
    [20] Cithaeron praedonius
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    2277275047002
    [21] Cryptodrassus creticus
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    35249249040002
    [22] Cryptoerithus occultus
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    7281281036002
    [23] Doliomalus cimicoides
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    0279277047002
    [24] Drassinella gertschi
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    5264264055002
    [25] Drassodes saccatus
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    3298297024002
    [26] Drassodex lasserti
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    39242241044002
    [27] Drassyllus fallens
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    4257257063002
    [28] Echemoides aguilari
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    7281281036002
    [29] Eilica bicolor
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    1265265058002
    [30] Galianoella leucostigma
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    4236236084002
    [31] Gallieniella mygaloides
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    16246246062002
    [32] Gertschosa spp
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    44254249031002
    [33] Gnaphosa californica
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    5272272047002
    [34] Gnaphosoidea tex
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    18237237069002
    [35] Haplodrassus hiemalis
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    7281281036002
    [36] Hemicloea sundevalli
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    10268268046002
    [37] Herpyllus ecclesiasticus
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    5284284035002
    [38] Heser schmitzi
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    42231231051002
    [39] Hypodrassodes maoricus
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    3290290031002
    [40] Kishidaia albimaculata
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    117194194013002
    [41] Lampona cylindrata
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    0275275049002
    [42] Latonigena auricomis
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    37250250037002
    [43] Leptodrassex sp
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    113169169042002
    [44] Leptodrassus albidus
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    44226226054002
    [45] Leptopilos levantinus
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    44233233047002
    [46] Liocranum rupicola
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    3285281040002
    [47] Litopyllus temporarius
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    3282281040002
    [48] Lygromma chamberlini
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    3279279042002
    [49] Meedo houstoni
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    22227226076002
    [50] Megamyrmaekion transvaalense
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    109182182033002
    [51] Micaria gosiuta
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    4295293027002
    [52] Microsa chickeringi
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    9254254061002
    [53] Minosia simeonica
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    3269268053002
    [54] Moreno grande
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    9261260055002
    [55] Nauhea tapa
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    91186186047002
    [56] Neodrassex aureus
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    21273273030002
    [57] Neozimiris pubescens
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    3259259062002
    [58] Nodocion eclecticus
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    2277277045002
    [59] Nomisia aussereri
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    7268268049002
    [60] Nopyllus sp
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    67210210047002
    [61] Notiodrassus distinctus
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    34253253037002
    [62] Odontodrassus aphanes
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    5278277042002
    [63] Oltacloea beltraoe
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    45229228051002
    [64] Orodrassus coloradensis
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    4280280040002
    [65] Parasyrisca orites
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    121177177026002
    [66] Phaeocedus braccatus
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    107182179038002
    [67] Phrurolithus festivus
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    7248248069002
    [68] Plator spp
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    49228228047002
    [69] Platyoides walteri
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    8267267049002
    [70] Prodidomus rufus
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    9239239076002
    [71] Pterotricha conspersa
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    6275275043002
    [72] Rastellus spp
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    21232231072002
    [73] Scopoides catharius
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    8287287029002
    [74] Scotocesonia demerarae
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    127184182015002
    [75] Scotognapha teideensis
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    27256254043002
    [76] Scotophaeus blackwalli
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    6292292026002
    [77] Sergiolus capulatus
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    4286286034002
    [78] Setaphis subtilis
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    1268268055002
    [79] Sosticus insularis
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    7268267050002
    [80] Sydidrassus
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    41262256027002
    [81] Synaphosus syntheticus
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    19252251054002
    [82] Talanites echinus
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    11274274039002
    [83] Teutamus rama
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    8250250066002
    [84] Tivodrassus ethophor
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    2266265057002
    [85] Trachelas mexicanus
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    9254254061002
    [86] Trachycosmus sculptilis
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    56226226042002
    [87] Trachyzelotes pedestris
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    6259258060002
    [88] Trephopoda parvipalpa
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    90185185049002
    [89] Tricongius amazonicus
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    56218217051002
    [90] Trochantheria gomezi
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    7257257060002
    [91] Urozelotes rusticus
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    3266266055002
    [92] Vectius niger
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    3257257064002
    [93] Verita williamsi
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    80210209035002
    [94] Xenoplectus sp
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    18264264042002
    [95] Xerophaeus capensis
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    42264262020002
    [96] Zelanda spp
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    9277277038002
    [97] Zelotes duplex
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    7274274043002
    [98] Zelotiba simpula
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    32230230062002
    [99] Zimiromus montenegro
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    4281281039002
    [100] Echemus angustifrons
    Last Modified in 01/28/20
    164147147013002


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    Total project views4191
    Project overview437
    Media views771Media search (643 views); M658786 (128 views);
    Views for media list230
    Specimen list329
    Taxon list1872
    Documents list238
    Bibliography157
    Matrix views157Matrix landing page (136 views); Morphological matrix from Azevedo et al. 2018 (prepared by MorphoBank curators from original submission) (21 views);




    Project downloads

    type number of downloads Individual items downloaded (where applicable)
    Total downloads from project62
    Project downloads56
    Document downloads3Character names and states (2 downloads); Matrix in Excel format Character names and states excluded (1 download);
    Matrix downloads3Morphological matrix from Azevedo et al. 2018 (prepared by MorphoBank curators from original submission) (3 downloads);